iDev: UIImage and UIImage View

When we use images in our application then we face different type of scenarios while handling the image. Before we go into the scenarios / situations of image handling in Application, let us understand the concept of UIImage and UIImageView.

Concept of UIImage and UIImageView (container)

UIImage – Bitmap with different formats Ex png and jpeg. Recommended format is png.UIImageView – This is an iOS Widget that acts like a container for holding the image. To hold the image, UIImageView is required.

When UIImage is shown in UIImageView, there is a property (Content Mode) of UIImageView, that render the Image in UIImageView. We mostly use three types of Content Mode property. These are:

  • Scale To Fill
  • Aspect Fit
  • Aspect Fill

How these Content Mode render the image we can see by following examples

  • UIImage of size (100×150)
  • UIImageView of size (200×200)

Different Content modes for placing Image in ImageView

1. Scale To Fill

In this case, content is scaled to fill in ImageView with distorted or same aspect ratio. If the image aspect ratio is different than that of container then final image ratio when fitted in the container will be different and hence the image is finally distorted.

(Aspect Ratio is Width / Height)

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

2. Aspect Fit

In this case, content is scaled to fit in ImageView (container) without changing the aspect ratio of image . Remainder is transparent.

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

3. Aspect Fill Without Clipping

In this case, image is scaled to fill in ImageView. Aspect ratio of image is not changed.

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

4. Aspect Fill With Clipping

In this case, content is scaled to fill in ImageView the same way it happen in the above case but then finally image is cropped to the exact size of the ImageView size.

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

Calculating new width and height with maintaining aspect ratio

Image original width = 100 and height = 150
Container width  = 200 and height = 200

x-ratio = Container width / Image original width = 200/100 = 2.0
y-ratio =  Container height / Image original height = 200/ 150 =  1.33

Selected ratio = min (x-ratio, y-ratio) = 1.33

Final Image width = Image original width * Selected Ratio = 100 * 1.33 = 133
Final Image height = Image original height * Selected Ratio = 150 * 1.33 = 200

Final Image width x height = 133 x 200 (Original width x height of image was 100 x 150)

Showing Images coming from Server (Different Scenarios)

We can use Aspect Fit mode for all the scenarios. It will serve in every scenario if you don’t want to distort image.

Scenario 1
Image width is lesser than Container width.
Image height is lesser than Container height

Image width = 100 and height = 150
UIImageView width = 200 and height = 200

Final Image width = 133  and height = 200 (Refer the calculations above)
Image is scaled up to fit the container.

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

Scenario 2 
Image width is greater than Container width.
Image height is lesser than Container height

Image width = 100 and height = 150
UIImageView width = 80 and height = 200

Final Image width = 80 and height = 122
Image is scaled down to fit the container.

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

Scenario 3
Image width is lesser than Container width.
Image height is greater than Container height.

Image width = 100 and height = 150
UIImageView width = 200 and height = 120

Final width = 80  and height = 120
Image is scaled down to fit the container.
InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

Scenario 4
Image width is greater than Container width.
Image height is greater than Container height.

Image width = 100 and height = 150
UIImageView width = 80 and height = 100

Final width = 66  and height = 100
Image is scaled down to fit the container.

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

Scenario 5 (Same Aspect Ratio of Image and ImageView)
Image width is greater than Container width.
Image height is greater than Container height.

Image width = 100 and height = 150
UIImageView width = 80 and height = 120

Final width = 80 and height = 120
Image is scaled down to fit the container.

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

Scenario 6 (Same Aspect Ratio of Image and ImageView)
Image width is lesser than Container width.
Image height is lesser than Container height.

Image width = 100 and height = 150
UIImageView width = 120 and height = 180

Final width = 120 and height = 180
Image is scaled up to fit the container.

InnovationM Image Handling in iOS

How we change the image size and compress image file size-

Uploading Images to the Server (Different Scenarios)

Many times we have to upload images in an application from device (iPhone, iPad) to the server. It could be a photo clicked from the camera or there was an old image that we choose and upload from the application.

Before uploading we can do two things with the image:

1. Change the width and height of original image.
2. Compress the image to be of smaller file size.

Let us understand them.

1. Change the width and height of original image.

To resize the image, we have to configure the drawing environment for rendering into a bitmap.

1# UIGraphicsBeginImageContextWithOptions()  method is used to create the bitmap-based graphics context.

This method takes two parameters:

  1. Size of image (changed size) and
  2. Scale factor of device as parameter.

Scale factor for Normal Display = 1.0
Scale factor for Retina Display = 2.0

2# – (void) drawInRect:(CGRect)rect; method is used to draw the image in target rectangle.

3# UIGraphicsGetImageFromCurrentImageContext()  method is used to get the resized image from drawing environment.

4# UIGraphicsEndImageContext() method is used to clean up the bitmap drawing environment and remove the graphics context from the top of the context stack.

Example :

Original source Image  Size = (2448, 3264)
Original source image file size = 3.8 MB

After resizing image to size (1024,768):
Resized source Image  Size = (1024,768)
Resized source image file size = 2.0 MB

Code Example:

2. Compress the image to be of smaller file size.

We can compress the image file size by following method.

UIImageJPEGRepresentation() This method takes two parameter

  1. UIImage object.
  2. Compress ratio (It can be between 0.0 and 1.0)

This method will return NSData representation of image after compressing.

Example :

Original source Image  Size = (2448, 3264)
Original source image file size = 3.8 MB

After compressing image file  size by 0.5:
Resized source Image  Size = (2448, 3264)
Resized source image file size = 534 KB

Code Example:

Depending upon your requirement whether to reduce the size (width and height in pixels) OR reduce the file size OR Both, you may apply the above.

Original Source: Click Here

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iDev: Set Warnings in Xcode

Here a reference docs, How we set the warnings in Xcode and get the results :

Source Link: Click Here

Warnings are diagnostic messages that report constructions that are not inherently erroneous but that are risky or suggest there may have been an error.

The following language-independent options do not enable specific warnings but control the kinds of diagnostics produced by GCC.

-fsyntax-only
Check the code for syntax errors, but don’t do anything beyond that.
-fmax-errors=n
Limits the maximum number of error messages to n, at which point GCC bails out rather than attempting to continue processing the source code. If n is 0 (the default), there is no limit on the number of error messages produced. If -Wfatal-errors is also specified, then -Wfatal-errors takes precedence over this option.
-w
Inhibit all warning messages.
-Werror
Make all warnings into errors.
-Werror=
Make the specified warning into an error. The specifier for a warning is appended; for example -Werror=switch turns the warnings controlled by -Wswitch into errors. This switch takes a negative form, to be used to negate -Werror for specific warnings; for example -Wno-error=switch makes -Wswitch warnings not be errors, even when -Werror is in effect.The warning message for each controllable warning includes the option that controls the warning. That option can then be used with -Werror= and -Wno-error= as described above. (Printing of the option in the warning message can be disabled using the -fno-diagnostics-show-option flag.)

Note that specifying -Werror=foo automatically implies -Wfoo. However, -Wno-error=foo does not imply anything.

-Wfatal-errors
This option causes the compiler to abort compilation on the first error occurred rather than trying to keep going and printing further error messages.

You can request many specific warnings with options beginning with ‘-W’, for example -Wimplicit to request warnings on implicit declarations. Each of these specific warning options also has a negative form beginning ‘-Wno-’ to turn off warnings; for example, -Wno-implicit. This manual lists only one of the two forms, whichever is not the default. For further language-specific options also refer to C++ Dialect Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options.

Some options, such as -Wall and -Wextra, turn on other options, such as -Wunused, which may turn on further options, such as -Wunused-value. The combined effect of positive and negative forms is that more specific options have priority over less specific ones, independently of their position in the command-line. For options of the same specificity, the last one takes effect. Options enabled or disabled via pragmas (see Diagnostic Pragmas) take effect as if they appeared at the end of the command-line.

When an unrecognized warning option is requested (e.g., -Wunknown-warning), GCC emits a diagnostic stating that the option is not recognized. However, if the -Wno- form is used, the behavior is slightly different: no diagnostic is produced for -Wno-unknown-warning unless other diagnostics are being produced. This allows the use of new -Wno- options with old compilers, but if something goes wrong, the compiler warns that an unrecognized option is present.

-Wpedantic
-pedantic
Issue all the warnings demanded by strict ISO C and ISO C++; reject all programs that use forbidden extensions, and some other programs that do not follow ISO C and ISO C++. For ISO C, follows the version of the ISO C standard specified by any -std option used.Valid ISO C and ISO C++ programs should compile properly with or without this option (though a rare few require -ansi or a -std option specifying the required version of ISO C). However, without this option, certain GNU extensions and traditional C and C++ features are supported as well. With this option, they are rejected.

-Wpedantic does not cause warning messages for use of the alternate keywords whose names begin and end with ‘__’. Pedantic warnings are also disabled in the expression that follows __extension__. However, only system header files should use these escape routes; application programs should avoid them. See Alternate Keywords.

Some users try to use -Wpedantic to check programs for strict ISO C conformance. They soon find that it does not do quite what they want: it finds some non-ISO practices, but not all—only those for which ISO C requires a diagnostic, and some others for which diagnostics have been added.

A feature to report any failure to conform to ISO C might be useful in some instances, but would require considerable additional work and would be quite different from -Wpedantic. We don’t have plans to support such a feature in the near future.

Where the standard specified with -std represents a GNU extended dialect of C, such as ‘gnu90’ or ‘gnu99’, there is a corresponding base standard, the version of ISO C on which the GNU extended dialect is based. Warnings from -Wpedantic are given where they are required by the base standard. (It does not make sense for such warnings to be given only for features not in the specified GNU C dialect, since by definition the GNU dialects of C include all features the compiler supports with the given option, and there would be nothing to warn about.)

-pedantic-errors
Give an error whenever the base standard (see -Wpedantic) requires a diagnostic, in some cases where there is undefined behavior at compile-time and in some other cases that do not prevent compilation of programs that are valid according to the standard. This is not equivalent to -Werror=pedantic, since there are errors enabled by this option and not enabled by the latter and vice versa.
-Wall
This enables all the warnings about constructions that some users consider questionable, and that are easy to avoid (or modify to prevent the warning), even in conjunction with macros. This also enables some language-specific warnings described in C++ Dialect Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options.-Wall turns on the following warning flags:

          -Waddress   
          -Warray-bounds=1 (only with -O2)  
          -Wc++11-compat  -Wc++14-compat
          -Wchar-subscripts  
          -Wenum-compare (in C/ObjC; this is on by default in C++) 
          -Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only) 
          -Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only) 
          -Wbool-compare  
          -Wduplicated-cond  
          -Wcomment  
          -Wformat   
          -Wmain (only for C/ObjC and unless -ffreestanding)  
          -Wmaybe-uninitialized 
          -Wmissing-braces (only for C/ObjC) 
          -Wnonnull  
          -Wopenmp-simd 
          -Wparentheses  
          -Wpointer-sign  
          -Wreorder   
          -Wreturn-type  
          -Wsequence-point  
          -Wsign-compare (only in C++)  
          -Wstrict-aliasing  
          -Wstrict-overflow=1  
          -Wswitch  
          -Wtautological-compare  
          -Wtrigraphs  
          -Wuninitialized  
          -Wunknown-pragmas  
          -Wunused-function  
          -Wunused-label     
          -Wunused-value     
          -Wunused-variable  
          -Wvolatile-register-var 
          

Note that some warning flags are not implied by -Wall. Some of them warn about constructions that users generally do not consider questionable, but which occasionally you might wish to check for; others warn about constructions that are necessary or hard to avoid in some cases, and there is no simple way to modify the code to suppress the warning. Some of them are enabled by -Wextra but many of them must be enabled individually.

-Wextra
This enables some extra warning flags that are not enabled by -Wall. (This option used to be called -W. The older name is still supported, but the newer name is more descriptive.)

          -Wclobbered  
          -Wempty-body  
          -Wignored-qualifiers 
          -Wmissing-field-initializers  
          -Wmissing-parameter-type (C only)  
          -Wold-style-declaration (C only)  
          -Woverride-init  
          -Wsign-compare  
          -Wtype-limits  
          -Wuninitialized  
          -Wshift-negative-value  
          -Wunused-parameter (only with -Wunused or -Wall) 
          -Wunused-but-set-parameter (only with -Wunused or -Wall)  
          

The option -Wextra also prints warning messages for the following cases:

  • A pointer is compared against integer zero with <, <=, >, or >=.
  • (C++ only) An enumerator and a non-enumerator both appear in a conditional expression.
  • (C++ only) Ambiguous virtual bases.
  • (C++ only) Subscripting an array that has been declared register.
  • (C++ only) Taking the address of a variable that has been declared register.
  • (C++ only) A base class is not initialized in a derived class’s copy constructor.
-Wchar-subscripts
Warn if an array subscript has type char. This is a common cause of error, as programmers often forget that this type is signed on some machines. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wcomment
Warn whenever a comment-start sequence ‘/*’ appears in a ‘/*’ comment, or whenever a Backslash-Newline appears in a ‘//’ comment. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wno-coverage-mismatch
Warn if feedback profiles do not match when using the -fprofile-use option. If a source file is changed between compiling with -fprofile-gen and with -fprofile-use, the files with the profile feedback can fail to match the source file and GCC cannot use the profile feedback information. By default, this warning is enabled and is treated as an error. -Wno-coverage-mismatch can be used to disable the warning or -Wno-error=coverage-mismatch can be used to disable the error. Disabling the error for this warning can result in poorly optimized code and is useful only in the case of very minor changes such as bug fixes to an existing code-base. Completely disabling the warning is not recommended.
-Wno-cpp
(C, Objective-C, C++, Objective-C++ and Fortran only)Suppress warning messages emitted by #warning directives.

-Wdouble-promotion (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Give a warning when a value of type float is implicitly promoted to double. CPUs with a 32-bit “single-precision” floating-point unit implement float in hardware, but emulatedouble in software. On such a machine, doing computations using double values is much more expensive because of the overhead required for software emulation.It is easy to accidentally do computations with double because floating-point literals are implicitly of type double. For example, in:

          float area(float radius)
          {
             return 3.14159 * radius * radius;
          }

the compiler performs the entire computation with double because the floating-point literal is a double.

-Wformat
-Wformat=n
Check calls to printf and scanf, etc., to make sure that the arguments supplied have types appropriate to the format string specified, and that the conversions specified in the format string make sense. This includes standard functions, and others specified by format attributes (see Function Attributes), in the printf, scanf, strftime and strfmon (an X/Open extension, not in the C standard) families (or other target-specific families). Which functions are checked without format attributes having been specified depends on the standard version selected, and such checks of functions without the attribute specified are disabled by -ffreestanding or -fno-builtin.The formats are checked against the format features supported by GNU libc version 2.2. These include all ISO C90 and C99 features, as well as features from the Single Unix Specification and some BSD and GNU extensions. Other library implementations may not support all these features; GCC does not support warning about features that go beyond a particular library’s limitations. However, if -Wpedantic is used with -Wformat, warnings are given about format features not in the selected standard version (but not for strfmonformats, since those are not in any version of the C standard). See Options Controlling C Dialect.

-Wformat=1
-Wformat
Option -Wformat is equivalent to -Wformat=1, and -Wno-format is equivalent to -Wformat=0. Since -Wformat also checks for null format arguments for several functions, -Wformat also implies -Wnonnull. Some aspects of this level of format checking can be disabled by the options: -Wno-format-contains-nul, -Wno-format-extra-args, and -Wno-format-zero-length. -Wformat is enabled by -Wall.
-Wno-format-contains-nul
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about format strings that contain NUL bytes.
-Wno-format-extra-args
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about excess arguments to a printf or scanf format function. The C standard specifies that such arguments are ignored.Where the unused arguments lie between used arguments that are specified with ‘$’ operand number specifications, normally warnings are still given, since the implementation could not know what type to pass to va_arg to skip the unused arguments. However, in the case of scanf formats, this option suppresses the warning if the unused arguments are all pointers, since the Single Unix Specification says that such unused arguments are allowed.

-Wno-format-zero-length
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about zero-length formats. The C standard specifies that zero-length formats are allowed.
-Wformat=2
Enable -Wformat plus additional format checks. Currently equivalent to -Wformat -Wformat-nonliteral -Wformat-security -Wformat-y2k.
-Wformat-nonliteral
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string is not a string literal and so cannot be checked, unless the format function takes its format arguments as a va_list.
-Wformat-security
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about uses of format functions that represent possible security problems. At present, this warns about calls to printf and scanf functions where the format string is not a string literal and there are no format arguments, as in printf (foo);. This may be a security hole if the format string came from untrusted input and contains ‘%n’. (This is currently a subset of what -Wformat-nonliteral warns about, but in future warnings may be added to -Wformat-security that are not included in -Wformat-nonliteral.)
-Wformat-signedness
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string requires an unsigned argument and the argument is signed and vice versa.
-Wformat-y2k
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about strftime formats that may yield only a two-digit year.
-Wnonnull
Warn about passing a null pointer for arguments marked as requiring a non-null value by the nonnull function attribute.Also warns when comparing an argument marked with the nonnull function attribute against null inside the function.

-Wnonnull is included in -Wall and -Wformat. It can be disabled with the -Wno-nonnull option.

-Wnull-dereference
Warn if the compiler detects paths that trigger erroneous or undefined behavior due to dereferencing a null pointer. This option is only active when -fdelete-null-pointer-checksis active, which is enabled by optimizations in most targets. The precision of the warnings depends on the optimization options used.
-Winit-self (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about uninitialized variables that are initialized with themselves. Note this option can only be used with the -Wuninitialized option.For example, GCC warns about i being uninitialized in the following snippet only when -Winit-self has been specified:

          int f()
          {
            int i = i;
            return i;
          }

This warning is enabled by -Wall in C++.

-Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration does not specify a type. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Give a warning whenever a function is used before being declared. In C99 mode (-std=c99 or -std=gnu99), this warning is enabled by default and it is made into an error by -pedantic-errors. This warning is also enabled by -Wall.
-Wimplicit (C and Objective-C only)
Same as -Wimplicit-int and -Wimplicit-function-declaration. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wignored-qualifiers (C and C++ only)
Warn if the return type of a function has a type qualifier such as const. For ISO C such a type qualifier has no effect, since the value returned by a function is not an lvalue. For C++, the warning is only emitted for scalar types or void. ISO C prohibits qualified void return types on function definitions, so such return types always receive a warning even without this option.This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wmain
Warn if the type of main is suspicious. main should be a function with external linkage, returning int, taking either zero arguments, two, or three arguments of appropriate types. This warning is enabled by default in C++ and is enabled by either -Wall or -Wpedantic.
-Wmisleading-indentation (C and C++ only)
Warn when the indentation of the code does not reflect the block structure. Specifically, a warning is issued for if, else, while, and for clauses with a guarded statement that does not use braces, followed by an unguarded statement with the same indentation.This warning is disabled by default.

In the following example, the call to “bar” is misleadingly indented as if it were guarded by the “if” conditional.

            if (some_condition ())
              foo ();
              bar ();  /* Gotcha: this is not guarded by the "if".  */

In the case of mixed tabs and spaces, the warning uses the -ftabstop= option to determine if the statements line up (defaulting to 8).

The warning is not issued for code involving multiline preprocessor logic such as the following example.

            if (flagA)
              foo (0);
          #if SOME_CONDITION_THAT_DOES_NOT_HOLD
            if (flagB)
          #endif
              foo (1);

The warning is not issued after a #line directive, since this typically indicates autogenerated code, and no assumptions can be made about the layout of the file that the directive references.

-Wmissing-braces
Warn if an aggregate or union initializer is not fully bracketed. In the following example, the initializer for a is not fully bracketed, but that for b is fully bracketed. This warning is enabled by -Wall in C.

          int a[2][2] = { 0, 1, 2, 3 };
          int b[2][2] = { { 0, 1 }, { 2, 3 } };

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wmissing-include-dirs (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a user-supplied include directory does not exist.
-Wparentheses
Warn if parentheses are omitted in certain contexts, such as when there is an assignment in a context where a truth value is expected, or when operators are nested whose precedence people often get confused about.Also warn if a comparison like x<=y<=z appears; this is equivalent to (x<=y ? 1 : 0) <= z, which is a different interpretation from that of ordinary mathematical notation.

Also warn about constructions where there may be confusion to which if statement an else branch belongs. Here is an example of such a case:

          {
            if (a)
              if (b)
                foo ();
            else
              bar ();
          }

In C/C++, every else branch belongs to the innermost possible if statement, which in this example is if (b). This is often not what the programmer expected, as illustrated in the above example by indentation the programmer chose. When there is the potential for this confusion, GCC issues a warning when this flag is specified. To eliminate the warning, add explicit braces around the innermost if statement so there is no way the else can belong to the enclosing if. The resulting code looks like this:

          {
            if (a)
              {
                if (b)
                  foo ();
                else
                  bar ();
              }
          }

Also warn for dangerous uses of the GNU extension to ?: with omitted middle operand. When the condition in the ?: operator is a boolean expression, the omitted value is always 1. Often programmers expect it to be a value computed inside the conditional expression instead.

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wsequence-point
Warn about code that may have undefined semantics because of violations of sequence point rules in the C and C++ standards.The C and C++ standards define the order in which expressions in a C/C++ program are evaluated in terms of sequence points, which represent a partial ordering between the execution of parts of the program: those executed before the sequence point, and those executed after it. These occur after the evaluation of a full expression (one which is not part of a larger expression), after the evaluation of the first operand of a &&, ||, ? : or , (comma) operator, before a function is called (but after the evaluation of its arguments and the expression denoting the called function), and in certain other places. Other than as expressed by the sequence point rules, the order of evaluation of subexpressions of an expression is not specified. All these rules describe only a partial order rather than a total order, since, for example, if two functions are called within one expression with no sequence point between them, the order in which the functions are called is not specified. However, the standards committee have ruled that function calls do not overlap.

It is not specified when between sequence points modifications to the values of objects take effect. Programs whose behavior depends on this have undefined behavior; the C and C++ standards specify that “Between the previous and next sequence point an object shall have its stored value modified at most once by the evaluation of an expression. Furthermore, the prior value shall be read only to determine the value to be stored.”. If a program breaks these rules, the results on any particular implementation are entirely unpredictable.

Examples of code with undefined behavior are a = a++;, a[n] = b[n++] and a[i++] = i;. Some more complicated cases are not diagnosed by this option, and it may give an occasional false positive result, but in general it has been found fairly effective at detecting this sort of problem in programs.

The standard is worded confusingly, therefore there is some debate over the precise meaning of the sequence point rules in subtle cases. Links to discussions of the problem, including proposed formal definitions, may be found on the GCC readings page, at http://gcc.gnu.org/readings.html.

This warning is enabled by -Wall for C and C++.

-Wno-return-local-addr
Do not warn about returning a pointer (or in C++, a reference) to a variable that goes out of scope after the function returns.
-Wreturn-type
Warn whenever a function is defined with a return type that defaults to int. Also warn about any return statement with no return value in a function whose return type is not void(falling off the end of the function body is considered returning without a value), and about a return statement with an expression in a function whose return type is void.For C++, a function without return type always produces a diagnostic message, even when -Wno-return-type is specified. The only exceptions are main and functions defined in system headers.

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wshift-count-negative
Warn if shift count is negative. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wshift-count-overflow
Warn if shift count >= width of type. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wshift-negative-value
Warn if left shifting a negative value. This warning is enabled by -Wextra in C99 and C++11 modes (and newer).
-Wshift-overflow
-Wshift-overflow=n
Warn about left shift overflows. This warning is enabled by default in C99 and C++11 modes (and newer).

-Wshift-overflow=1
This is the warning level of -Wshift-overflow and is enabled by default in C99 and C++11 modes (and newer). This warning level does not warn about left-shifting 1 into the sign bit. (However, in C, such an overflow is still rejected in contexts where an integer constant expression is required.)
-Wshift-overflow=2
This warning level also warns about left-shifting 1 into the sign bit, unless C++14 mode is active.
-Wswitch
Warn whenever a switch statement has an index of enumerated type and lacks a case for one or more of the named codes of that enumeration. (The presence of a default label prevents this warning.) case labels outside the enumeration range also provoke warnings when this option is used (even if there is a default label). This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wswitch-default
Warn whenever a switch statement does not have a default case.
-Wswitch-enum
Warn whenever a switch statement has an index of enumerated type and lacks a case for one or more of the named codes of that enumeration. case labels outside the enumeration range also provoke warnings when this option is used. The only difference between -Wswitch and this option is that this option gives a warning about an omitted enumeration code even if there is a default label.
-Wswitch-bool
Warn whenever a switch statement has an index of boolean type and the case values are outside the range of a boolean type. It is possible to suppress this warning by casting the controlling expression to a type other than bool. For example:

          switch ((int) (a == 4))
            {
            ...
            }

This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.

-Wsync-nand (C and C++ only)
Warn when __sync_fetch_and_nand and __sync_nand_and_fetch built-in functions are used. These functions changed semantics in GCC 4.4.
-Wtrigraphs
Warn if any trigraphs are encountered that might change the meaning of the program (trigraphs within comments are not warned about). This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-but-set-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is assigned to, but otherwise unused (aside from its declaration).To suppress this warning use the unused attribute (see Variable Attributes).

This warning is also enabled by -Wunused together with -Wextra.

-Wunused-but-set-variable
Warn whenever a local variable is assigned to, but otherwise unused (aside from its declaration). This warning is enabled by -Wall.To suppress this warning use the unused attribute (see Variable Attributes).

This warning is also enabled by -Wunused, which is enabled by -Wall.

-Wunused-function
Warn whenever a static function is declared but not defined or a non-inline static function is unused. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-label
Warn whenever a label is declared but not used. This warning is enabled by -Wall.To suppress this warning use the unused attribute (see Variable Attributes).

-Wunused-local-typedefs (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a typedef locally defined in a function is not used. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is unused aside from its declaration.To suppress this warning use the unused attribute (see Variable Attributes).

-Wno-unused-result
Do not warn if a caller of a function marked with attribute warn_unused_result (see Function Attributes) does not use its return value. The default is -Wunused-result.
-Wunused-variable
Warn whenever a local or static variable is unused aside from its declaration. This option implies -Wunused-const-variable for C, but not for C++. This warning is enabled by -Wall.To suppress this warning use the unused attribute (see Variable Attributes).

-Wunused-const-variable
Warn whenever a constant static variable is unused aside from its declaration. This warning is enabled by -Wunused-variable for C, but not for C++. In C++ this is normally not an error since const variables take the place of #defines in C++.To suppress this warning use the unused attribute (see Variable Attributes).

-Wunused-value
Warn whenever a statement computes a result that is explicitly not used. To suppress this warning cast the unused expression to void. This includes an expression-statement or the left-hand side of a comma expression that contains no side effects. For example, an expression such as x[i,j] causes a warning, while x[(void)i,j] does not.This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wunused
All the above -Wunused options combined.In order to get a warning about an unused function parameter, you must either specify -Wextra -Wunused (note that -Wall implies -Wunused), or separately specify -Wunused-parameter.

-Wuninitialized
Warn if an automatic variable is used without first being initialized or if a variable may be clobbered by a setjmp call. In C++, warn if a non-static reference or non-static constmember appears in a class without constructors.If you want to warn about code that uses the uninitialized value of the variable in its own initializer, use the -Winit-self option.

These warnings occur for individual uninitialized or clobbered elements of structure, union or array variables as well as for variables that are uninitialized or clobbered as a whole. They do not occur for variables or elements declared volatile. Because these warnings depend on optimization, the exact variables or elements for which there are warnings depends on the precise optimization options and version of GCC used.

Note that there may be no warning about a variable that is used only to compute a value that itself is never used, because such computations may be deleted by data flow analysis before the warnings are printed.

-Wmaybe-uninitialized
For an automatic variable, if there exists a path from the function entry to a use of the variable that is initialized, but there exist some other paths for which the variable is not initialized, the compiler emits a warning if it cannot prove the uninitialized paths are not executed at run time. These warnings are made optional because GCC is not smart enough to see all the reasons why the code might be correct in spite of appearing to have an error. Here is one example of how this can happen:

          {
            int x;
            switch (y)
              {
              case 1: x = 1;
                break;
              case 2: x = 4;
                break;
              case 3: x = 5;
              }
            foo (x);
          }

If the value of y is always 1, 2 or 3, then x is always initialized, but GCC doesn’t know this. To suppress the warning, you need to provide a default case with assert(0) or similar code.

This option also warns when a non-volatile automatic variable might be changed by a call to longjmp. These warnings as well are possible only in optimizing compilation.

The compiler sees only the calls to setjmp. It cannot know where longjmp will be called; in fact, a signal handler could call it at any point in the code. As a result, you may get a warning even when there is in fact no problem because longjmp cannot in fact be called at the place that would cause a problem.

Some spurious warnings can be avoided if you declare all the functions you use that never return as noreturn. See Function Attributes.

This warning is enabled by -Wall or -Wextra.

-Wunknown-pragmas
Warn when a #pragma directive is encountered that is not understood by GCC. If this command-line option is used, warnings are even issued for unknown pragmas in system header files. This is not the case if the warnings are only enabled by the -Wall command-line option.
-Wno-pragmas
Do not warn about misuses of pragmas, such as incorrect parameters, invalid syntax, or conflicts between pragmas. See also -Wunknown-pragmas.
-Wstrict-aliasing
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that the compiler is using for optimization. The warning does not catch all cases, but does attempt to catch the more common pitfalls. It is included in -Wall. It is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3
-Wstrict-aliasing=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that the compiler is using for optimization. Higher levels correspond to higher accuracy (fewer false positives). Higher levels also correspond to more effort, similar to the way -O works. -Wstrict-aliasing is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3.Level 1: Most aggressive, quick, least accurate. Possibly useful when higher levels do not warn but -fstrict-aliasing still breaks the code, as it has very few false negatives. However, it has many false positives. Warns for all pointer conversions between possibly incompatible types, even if never dereferenced. Runs in the front end only.

Level 2: Aggressive, quick, not too precise. May still have many false positives (not as many as level 1 though), and few false negatives (but possibly more than level 1). Unlike level 1, it only warns when an address is taken. Warns about incomplete types. Runs in the front end only.

Level 3 (default for -Wstrict-aliasing): Should have very few false positives and few false negatives. Slightly slower than levels 1 or 2 when optimization is enabled. Takes care of the common pun+dereference pattern in the front end: *(int*)&some_float. If optimization is enabled, it also runs in the back end, where it deals with multiple statement cases using flow-sensitive points-to information. Only warns when the converted pointer is dereferenced. Does not warn about incomplete types.

-Wstrict-overflow
-Wstrict-overflow=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-overflow is active. It warns about cases where the compiler optimizes based on the assumption that signed overflow does not occur. Note that it does not warn about all cases where the code might overflow: it only warns about cases where the compiler implements some optimization. Thus this warning depends on the optimization level.An optimization that assumes that signed overflow does not occur is perfectly safe if the values of the variables involved are such that overflow never does, in fact, occur. Therefore this warning can easily give a false positive: a warning about code that is not actually a problem. To help focus on important issues, several warning levels are defined. No warnings are issued for the use of undefined signed overflow when estimating how many iterations a loop requires, in particular when determining whether a loop will be executed at all.

-Wstrict-overflow=1
Warn about cases that are both questionable and easy to avoid. For example, with -fstrict-overflow, the compiler simplifies x + 1 > x to 1. This level of -Wstrict-overflow is enabled by -Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.
-Wstrict-overflow=2
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified to a constant. For example: abs (x) >= 0. This can only be simplified when -fstrict-overflow is in effect, because abs (INT_MIN) overflows to INT_MIN, which is less than zero. -Wstrict-overflow (with no level) is the same as -Wstrict-overflow=2.
-Wstrict-overflow=3
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified. For example: x + 1 > 1 is simplified to x > 0.
-Wstrict-overflow=4
Also warn about other simplifications not covered by the above cases. For example: (x * 10) / 5 is simplified to x * 2.
-Wstrict-overflow=5
Also warn about cases where the compiler reduces the magnitude of a constant involved in a comparison. For example: x + 2 > y is simplified to x + 1 >= y. This is reported only at the highest warning level because this simplification applies to many comparisons, so this warning level gives a very large number of false positives.
-Wsuggest-attribute=[pure|const|noreturn|format]
Warn for cases where adding an attribute may be beneficial. The attributes currently supported are listed below.

-Wsuggest-attribute=pure
-Wsuggest-attribute=const
-Wsuggest-attribute=noreturn
Warn about functions that might be candidates for attributes pure, const or noreturn. The compiler only warns for functions visible in other compilation units or (in the case ofpure and const) if it cannot prove that the function returns normally. A function returns normally if it doesn’t contain an infinite loop or return abnormally by throwing, callingabort or trapping. This analysis requires option -fipa-pure-const, which is enabled by default at -O and higher. Higher optimization levels improve the accuracy of the analysis.
-Wsuggest-attribute=format
-Wmissing-format-attribute
Warn about function pointers that might be candidates for format attributes. Note these are only possible candidates, not absolute ones. GCC guesses that function pointers withformat attributes that are used in assignment, initialization, parameter passing or return statements should have a corresponding format attribute in the resulting type. I.e. the left-hand side of the assignment or initialization, the type of the parameter variable, or the return type of the containing function respectively should also have a format attribute to avoid the warning.GCC also warns about function definitions that might be candidates for format attributes. Again, these are only possible candidates. GCC guesses that format attributes might be appropriate for any function that calls a function like vprintf or vscanf, but this might not always be the case, and some functions for which format attributes are appropriate may not be detected.

-Wsuggest-final-types
Warn about types with virtual methods where code quality would be improved if the type were declared with the C++11 final specifier, or, if possible, declared in an anonymous namespace. This allows GCC to more aggressively devirtualize the polymorphic calls. This warning is more effective with link time optimization, where the information about the class hierarchy graph is more complete.
-Wsuggest-final-methods
Warn about virtual methods where code quality would be improved if the method were declared with the C++11 final specifier, or, if possible, its type were declared in an anonymous namespace or with the final specifier. This warning is more effective with link time optimization, where the information about the class hierarchy graph is more complete. It is recommended to first consider suggestions of -Wsuggest-final-types and then rebuild with new annotations.
-Wsuggest-override
Warn about overriding virtual functions that are not marked with the override keyword.
-Warray-bounds
-Warray-bounds=n
This option is only active when -ftree-vrp is active (default for -O2 and above). It warns about subscripts to arrays that are always out of bounds. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Warray-bounds=1
This is the warning level of -Warray-bounds and is enabled by -Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.
-Warray-bounds=2
This warning level also warns about out of bounds access for arrays at the end of a struct and for arrays accessed through pointers. This warning level may give a larger number of false positives and is deactivated by default.
-Wbool-compare
Warn about boolean expression compared with an integer value different from true/false. For instance, the following comparison is always false:

          int n = 5;
          ...
          if ((n > 1) == 2) { ... }

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wduplicated-cond
Warn about duplicated conditions in an if-else-if chain. For instance, warn for the following code:

          if (p->q != NULL) { ... }
          else if (p->q != NULL) { ... }

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wframe-address
Warn when the ‘__builtin_frame_address’ or ‘__builtin_return_address’ is called with an argument greater than 0. Such calls may return indeterminate values or crash the program. The warning is included in -Wall.
-Wno-discarded-qualifiers (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn if type qualifiers on pointers are being discarded. Typically, the compiler warns if a const char * variable is passed to a function that takes a char * parameter. This option can be used to suppress such a warning.
-Wno-discarded-array-qualifiers (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn if type qualifiers on arrays which are pointer targets are being discarded. Typically, the compiler warns if a const int (*)[] variable is passed to a function that takes aint (*)[] parameter. This option can be used to suppress such a warning.
-Wno-incompatible-pointer-types (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn when there is a conversion between pointers that have incompatible types. This warning is for cases not covered by -Wno-pointer-sign, which warns for pointer argument passing or assignment with different signedness.
-Wno-int-conversion (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn about incompatible integer to pointer and pointer to integer conversions. This warning is about implicit conversions; for explicit conversions the warnings -Wno-int-to-pointer-cast and -Wno-pointer-to-int-cast may be used.
-Wno-div-by-zero
Do not warn about compile-time integer division by zero. Floating-point division by zero is not warned about, as it can be a legitimate way of obtaining infinities and NaNs.
-Wsystem-headers
Print warning messages for constructs found in system header files. Warnings from system headers are normally suppressed, on the assumption that they usually do not indicate real problems and would only make the compiler output harder to read. Using this command-line option tells GCC to emit warnings from system headers as if they occurred in user code. However, note that using -Wall in conjunction with this option does not warn about unknown pragmas in system headers—for that, -Wunknown-pragmas must also be used.
-Wtautological-compare
Warn if a self-comparison always evaluates to true or false. This warning detects various mistakes such as:

          int i = 1;
          ...
          if (i > i) { ... }

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wtrampolines
Warn about trampolines generated for pointers to nested functions. A trampoline is a small piece of data or code that is created at run time on the stack when the address of a nested function is taken, and is used to call the nested function indirectly. For some targets, it is made up of data only and thus requires no special treatment. But, for most targets, it is made up of code and thus requires the stack to be made executable in order for the program to work properly.
-Wfloat-equal
Warn if floating-point values are used in equality comparisons.The idea behind this is that sometimes it is convenient (for the programmer) to consider floating-point values as approximations to infinitely precise real numbers. If you are doing this, then you need to compute (by analyzing the code, or in some other way) the maximum or likely maximum error that the computation introduces, and allow for it when performing comparisons (and when producing output, but that’s a different problem). In particular, instead of testing for equality, you should check to see whether the two values have ranges that overlap; and this is done with the relational operators, so equality comparisons are probably mistaken.

-Wtraditional (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in traditional and ISO C. Also warn about ISO C constructs that have no traditional C equivalent, and/or problematic constructs that should be avoided.

  • Macro parameters that appear within string literals in the macro body. In traditional C macro replacement takes place within string literals, but in ISO C it does not.
  • In traditional C, some preprocessor directives did not exist. Traditional preprocessors only considered a line to be a directive if the ‘#’ appeared in column 1 on the line. Therefore -Wtraditional warns about directives that traditional C understands but ignores because the ‘#’ does not appear as the first character on the line. It also suggests you hide directives like #pragma not understood by traditional C by indenting them. Some traditional implementations do not recognize #elif, so this option suggests avoiding it altogether.
  • A function-like macro that appears without arguments.
  • The unary plus operator.
  • The ‘U’ integer constant suffix, or the ‘F’ or ‘L’ floating-point constant suffixes. (Traditional C does support the ‘L’ suffix on integer constants.) Note, these suffixes appear in macros defined in the system headers of most modern systems, e.g. the ‘_MIN’/‘_MAX’ macros in <limits.h>. Use of these macros in user code might normally lead to spurious warnings, however GCC’s integrated preprocessor has enough context to avoid warning in these cases.
  • A function declared external in one block and then used after the end of the block.
  • A switch statement has an operand of type long.
  • A non-static function declaration follows a static one. This construct is not accepted by some traditional C compilers.
  • The ISO type of an integer constant has a different width or signedness from its traditional type. This warning is only issued if the base of the constant is ten. I.e. hexadecimal or octal values, which typically represent bit patterns, are not warned about.
  • Usage of ISO string concatenation is detected.
  • Initialization of automatic aggregates.
  • Identifier conflicts with labels. Traditional C lacks a separate namespace for labels.
  • Initialization of unions. If the initializer is zero, the warning is omitted. This is done under the assumption that the zero initializer in user code appears conditioned on e.g.__STDC__ to avoid missing initializer warnings and relies on default initialization to zero in the traditional C case.
  • Conversions by prototypes between fixed/floating-point values and vice versa. The absence of these prototypes when compiling with traditional C causes serious problems. This is a subset of the possible conversion warnings; for the full set use -Wtraditional-conversion.
  • Use of ISO C style function definitions. This warning intentionally is not issued for prototype declarations or variadic functions because these ISO C features appear in your code when using libiberty’s traditional C compatibility macros, PARAMS and VPARAMS. This warning is also bypassed for nested functions because that feature is already a GCC extension and thus not relevant to traditional C compatibility.
-Wtraditional-conversion (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a prototype causes a type conversion that is different from what would happen to the same argument in the absence of a prototype. This includes conversions of fixed point to floating and vice versa, and conversions changing the width or signedness of a fixed-point argument except when the same as the default promotion.
-Wdeclaration-after-statement (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration is found after a statement in a block. This construct, known from C++, was introduced with ISO C99 and is by default allowed in GCC. It is not supported by ISO C90. See Mixed Declarations.
-Wundef
Warn if an undefined identifier is evaluated in an #if directive.
-Wno-endif-labels
Do not warn whenever an #else or an #endif are followed by text.
-Wshadow
Warn whenever a local variable or type declaration shadows another variable, parameter, type, class member (in C++), or instance variable (in Objective-C) or whenever a built-in function is shadowed. Note that in C++, the compiler warns if a local variable shadows an explicit typedef, but not if it shadows a struct/class/enum.
-Wno-shadow-ivar (Objective-C only)
Do not warn whenever a local variable shadows an instance variable in an Objective-C method.
-Wlarger-than=len
Warn whenever an object of larger than len bytes is defined.
-Wframe-larger-than=len
Warn if the size of a function frame is larger than len bytes. The computation done to determine the stack frame size is approximate and not conservative. The actual requirements may be somewhat greater than len even if you do not get a warning. In addition, any space allocated via alloca, variable-length arrays, or related constructs is not included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning.
-Wno-free-nonheap-object
Do not warn when attempting to free an object that was not allocated on the heap.
-Wstack-usage=len
Warn if the stack usage of a function might be larger than len bytes. The computation done to determine the stack usage is conservative. Any space allocated via alloca, variable-length arrays, or related constructs is included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning.The message is in keeping with the output of -fstack-usage.

  • If the stack usage is fully static but exceeds the specified amount, it’s:
                     warning: stack usage is 1120 bytes
    
  • If the stack usage is (partly) dynamic but bounded, it’s:
                     warning: stack usage might be 1648 bytes
    
  • If the stack usage is (partly) dynamic and not bounded, it’s:
                     warning: stack usage might be unbounded
    
-Wunsafe-loop-optimizations
Warn if the loop cannot be optimized because the compiler cannot assume anything on the bounds of the loop indices. With -funsafe-loop-optimizations warn if the compiler makes such assumptions.
-Wno-pedantic-ms-format (MinGW targets only)
When used in combination with -Wformat and -pedantic without GNU extensions, this option disables the warnings about non-ISO printf / scanf format width specifiers I32, I64, and I used on Windows targets, which depend on the MS runtime.
-Wplacement-new
Warn about placement new expressions with undefined behavior, such as constructing an object in a buffer that is smaller than the type of the object.
-Wpointer-arith
Warn about anything that depends on the “size of” a function type or of void. GNU C assigns these types a size of 1, for convenience in calculations with void * pointers and pointers to functions. In C++, warn also when an arithmetic operation involves NULL. This warning is also enabled by -Wpedantic.
-Wtype-limits
Warn if a comparison is always true or always false due to the limited range of the data type, but do not warn for constant expressions. For example, warn if an unsigned variable is compared against zero with < or >=. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wbad-function-cast (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a function call is cast to a non-matching type. For example, warn if a call to a function returning an integer type is cast to a pointer type.
-Wc90-c99-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C90, but present in ISO C99. For instance, warn about use of variable length arrays, long long type, bool type, compound literals, designated initializers, and so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings are disabled in the expression that follows __extension__.
-Wc99-c11-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C99, but present in ISO C11. For instance, warn about use of anonymous structures and unions, _Atomic type qualifier, _Thread_localstorage-class specifier, _Alignas specifier, Alignof operator, _Generic keyword, and so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings are disabled in the expression that follows __extension__.
-Wc++-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about ISO C constructs that are outside of the common subset of ISO C and ISO C++, e.g. request for implicit conversion from void * to a pointer to non-void type.
-Wc++11-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 1998 and ISO C++ 2011, e.g., identifiers in ISO C++ 1998 that are keywords in ISO C++ 2011. This warning turns on -Wnarrowing and is enabled by -Wall.
-Wc++14-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 2011 and ISO C++ 2014. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wcast-qual
Warn whenever a pointer is cast so as to remove a type qualifier from the target type. For example, warn if a const char * is cast to an ordinary char *.Also warn when making a cast that introduces a type qualifier in an unsafe way. For example, casting char ** to const char ** is unsafe, as in this example:

            /* p is char ** value.  */
            const char **q = (const char **) p;
            /* Assignment of readonly string to const char * is OK.  */
            *q = "string";
            /* Now char** pointer points to read-only memory.  */
            **p = 'b';
-Wcast-align
Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment of the target is increased. For example, warn if a char * is cast to an int * on machines where integers can only be accessed at two- or four-byte boundaries.
-Wwrite-strings
When compiling C, give string constants the type const char[length] so that copying the address of one into a non-const char * pointer produces a warning. These warnings help you find at compile time code that can try to write into a string constant, but only if you have been very careful about using const in declarations and prototypes. Otherwise, it is just a nuisance. This is why we did not make -Wall request these warnings.When compiling C++, warn about the deprecated conversion from string literals to char *. This warning is enabled by default for C++ programs.

-Wclobbered
Warn for variables that might be changed by longjmp or vfork. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wconditionally-supported (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn for conditionally-supported (C++11 [intro.defs]) constructs.
-Wconversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may alter a value. This includes conversions between real and integer, like abs (x) when x is double; conversions between signed and unsigned, like unsigned ui = -1; and conversions to smaller types, like sqrtf (M_PI). Do not warn for explicit casts like abs ((int) x) and ui = (unsigned) -1, or if the value is not changed by the conversion like in abs (2.0). Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers can be disabled by using -Wno-sign-conversion.For C++, also warn for confusing overload resolution for user-defined conversions; and conversions that never use a type conversion operator: conversions to void, the same type, a base class or a reference to them. Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers are disabled by default in C++ unless -Wsign-conversion is explicitly enabled.

-Wno-conversion-null (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Do not warn for conversions between NULL and non-pointer types. -Wconversion-null is enabled by default.
-Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a literal ‘0’ is used as null pointer constant. This can be useful to facilitate the conversion to nullptr in C++11.
-Wsubobject-linkage (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a class type has a base or a field whose type uses the anonymous namespace or depends on a type with no linkage. If a type A depends on a type B with no or internal linkage, defining it in multiple translation units would be an ODR violation because the meaning of B is different in each translation unit. If A only appears in a single translation unit, the best way to silence the warning is to give it internal linkage by putting it in an anonymous namespace as well. The compiler doesn’t give this warning for types defined in the main .C file, as those are unlikely to have multiple definitions. -Wsubobject-linkage is enabled by default.
-Wdate-time
Warn when macros __TIME__, __DATE__ or __TIMESTAMP__ are encountered as they might prevent bit-wise-identical reproducible compilations.
-Wdelete-incomplete (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when deleting a pointer to incomplete type, which may cause undefined behavior at runtime. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wuseless-cast (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when an expression is casted to its own type.
-Wempty-body
Warn if an empty body occurs in an if, else or do while statement. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wenum-compare
Warn about a comparison between values of different enumerated types. In C++ enumeral mismatches in conditional expressions are also diagnosed and the warning is enabled by default. In C this warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wjump-misses-init (C, Objective-C only)
Warn if a goto statement or a switch statement jumps forward across the initialization of a variable, or jumps backward to a label after the variable has been initialized. This only warns about variables that are initialized when they are declared. This warning is only supported for C and Objective-C; in C++ this sort of branch is an error in any case.-Wjump-misses-init is included in -Wc++-compat. It can be disabled with the -Wno-jump-misses-init option.

-Wsign-compare
Warn when a comparison between signed and unsigned values could produce an incorrect result when the signed value is converted to unsigned. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra; to get the other warnings of -Wextra without this warning, use -Wextra -Wno-sign-compare.
-Wsign-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may change the sign of an integer value, like assigning a signed integer expression to an unsigned integer variable. An explicit cast silences the warning. In C, this option is enabled also by -Wconversion.
-Wfloat-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that reduce the precision of a real value. This includes conversions from real to integer, and from higher precision real to lower precision real values. This option is also enabled by -Wconversion.
-Wno-scalar-storage-order
Do not warn on suspicious constructs involving reverse scalar storage order.
-Wsized-deallocation (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about a definition of an unsized deallocation function

          void operator delete (void *) noexcept;
          void operator delete[] (void *) noexcept;

without a definition of the corresponding sized deallocation function

          void operator delete (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;
          void operator delete[] (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;

or vice versa. Enabled by -Wextra along with -fsized-deallocation.

-Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess
Warn for suspicious length parameters to certain string and memory built-in functions if the argument uses sizeof. This warning warns e.g. about memset (ptr, 0, sizeof (ptr)); if ptr is not an array, but a pointer, and suggests a possible fix, or about memcpy (&foo, ptr, sizeof (&foo));. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wsizeof-array-argument
Warn when the sizeof operator is applied to a parameter that is declared as an array in a function definition. This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.
-Wmemset-transposed-args
Warn for suspicious calls to the memset built-in function, if the second argument is not zero and the third argument is zero. This warns e.g. about memset (buf, sizeof buf, 0)where most probably memset (buf, 0, sizeof buf) was meant instead. The diagnostics is only emitted if the third argument is literal zero. If it is some expression that is folded to zero, a cast of zero to some type, etc., it is far less likely that the user has mistakenly exchanged the arguments and no warning is emitted. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Waddress
Warn about suspicious uses of memory addresses. These include using the address of a function in a conditional expression, such as void func(void); if (func), and comparisons against the memory address of a string literal, such as if (x == "abc"). Such uses typically indicate a programmer error: the address of a function always evaluates to true, so their use in a conditional usually indicate that the programmer forgot the parentheses in a function call; and comparisons against string literals result in unspecified behavior and are not portable in C, so they usually indicate that the programmer intended to use strcmp. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wlogical-op
Warn about suspicious uses of logical operators in expressions. This includes using logical operators in contexts where a bit-wise operator is likely to be expected. Also warns when the operands of a logical operator are the same:

          extern int a;
          if (a < 0 && a < 0) { ... }
-Wlogical-not-parentheses
Warn about logical not used on the left hand side operand of a comparison. This option does not warn if the RHS operand is of a boolean type. Its purpose is to detect suspicious code like the following:

          int a;
          ...
          if (!a > 1) { ... }

It is possible to suppress the warning by wrapping the LHS into parentheses:

          if ((!a) > 1) { ... }

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Waggregate-return
Warn if any functions that return structures or unions are defined or called. (In languages where you can return an array, this also elicits a warning.)
-Wno-aggressive-loop-optimizations
Warn if in a loop with constant number of iterations the compiler detects undefined behavior in some statement during one or more of the iterations.
-Wno-attributes
Do not warn if an unexpected __attribute__ is used, such as unrecognized attributes, function attributes applied to variables, etc. This does not stop errors for incorrect use of supported attributes.
-Wno-builtin-macro-redefined
Do not warn if certain built-in macros are redefined. This suppresses warnings for redefinition of __TIMESTAMP__, __TIME__, __DATE__, __FILE__, and __BASE_FILE__.
-Wstrict-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a function is declared or defined without specifying the argument types. (An old-style function definition is permitted without a warning if preceded by a declaration that specifies the argument types.)
-Wold-style-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for obsolescent usages, according to the C Standard, in a declaration. For example, warn if storage-class specifiers like static are not the first things in a declaration. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wold-style-definition (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an old-style function definition is used. A warning is given even if there is a previous prototype.
-Wmissing-parameter-type (C and Objective-C only)
A function parameter is declared without a type specifier in K&R-style functions:

          void foo(bar) { }

This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wmissing-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous prototype declaration. This warning is issued even if the definition itself provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that do not have a matching prototype declaration in a header file. This option is not valid for C++ because all function declarations provide prototypes and a non-matching declaration declares an overload rather than conflict with an earlier declaration. Use -Wmissing-declarations to detect missing declarations in C++.
-Wmissing-declarations
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous declaration. Do so even if the definition itself provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that are not declared in header files. In C, no warnings are issued for functions with previous non-prototype declarations; use -Wmissing-prototypes to detect missing prototypes. In C++, no warnings are issued for function templates, or for inline functions, or for functions in anonymous namespaces.
-Wmissing-field-initializers
Warn if a structure’s initializer has some fields missing. For example, the following code causes such a warning, because x.h is implicitly zero:

          struct s { int f, g, h; };
          struct s x = { 3, 4 };

This option does not warn about designated initializers, so the following modification does not trigger a warning:

          struct s { int f, g, h; };
          struct s x = { .f = 3, .g = 4 };

In C++ this option does not warn either about the empty { } initializer, for example:

          struct s { int f, g, h; };
          s x = { };

This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings without this one, use -Wextra -Wno-missing-field-initializers.

-Wno-multichar
Do not warn if a multicharacter constant (‘‘FOOF’’) is used. Usually they indicate a typo in the user’s code, as they have implementation-defined values, and should not be used in portable code.
-Wnormalized[=<none|id|nfc|nfkc>]
In ISO C and ISO C++, two identifiers are different if they are different sequences of characters. However, sometimes when characters outside the basic ASCII character set are used, you can have two different character sequences that look the same. To avoid confusion, the ISO 10646 standard sets out some normalization rules which when applied ensure that two sequences that look the same are turned into the same sequence. GCC can warn you if you are using identifiers that have not been normalized; this option controls that warning.There are four levels of warning supported by GCC. The default is -Wnormalized=nfc, which warns about any identifier that is not in the ISO 10646 “C” normalized form, NFC. NFC is the recommended form for most uses. It is equivalent to -Wnormalized.

Unfortunately, there are some characters allowed in identifiers by ISO C and ISO C++ that, when turned into NFC, are not allowed in identifiers. That is, there’s no way to use these symbols in portable ISO C or C++ and have all your identifiers in NFC. -Wnormalized=id suppresses the warning for these characters. It is hoped that future versions of the standards involved will correct this, which is why this option is not the default.

You can switch the warning off for all characters by writing -Wnormalized=none or -Wno-normalized. You should only do this if you are using some other normalization scheme (like “D”), because otherwise you can easily create bugs that are literally impossible to see.

Some characters in ISO 10646 have distinct meanings but look identical in some fonts or display methodologies, especially once formatting has been applied. For instance \u207F, “SUPERSCRIPT LATIN SMALL LETTER N”, displays just like a regular n that has been placed in a superscript. ISO 10646 defines the NFKC normalization scheme to convert all these into a standard form as well, and GCC warns if your code is not in NFKC if you use -Wnormalized=nfkc. This warning is comparable to warning about every identifier that contains the letter O because it might be confused with the digit 0, and so is not the default, but may be useful as a local coding convention if the programming environment cannot be fixed to display these characters distinctly.

-Wno-deprecated
Do not warn about usage of deprecated features. See Deprecated Features.
-Wno-deprecated-declarations
Do not warn about uses of functions (see Function Attributes), variables (see Variable Attributes), and types (see Type Attributes) marked as deprecated by using the deprecatedattribute.
-Wno-overflow
Do not warn about compile-time overflow in constant expressions.
-Wno-odr
Warn about One Definition Rule violations during link-time optimization. Requires -flto-odr-type-merging to be enabled. Enabled by default.
-Wopenmp-simd
Warn if the vectorizer cost model overrides the OpenMP or the Cilk Plus simd directive set by user. The -fsimd-cost-model=unlimited option can be used to relax the cost model.
-Woverride-init (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an initialized field without side effects is overridden when using designated initializers (see Designated Initializers).This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings without this one, use -Wextra -Wno-override-init.

-Woverride-init-side-effects (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an initialized field with side effects is overridden when using designated initializers (see Designated Initializers). This warning is enabled by default.
-Wpacked
Warn if a structure is given the packed attribute, but the packed attribute has no effect on the layout or size of the structure. Such structures may be mis-aligned for little benefit. For instance, in this code, the variable f.x in struct bar is misaligned even though struct bar does not itself have the packed attribute:

          struct foo {
            int x;
            char a, b, c, d;
          } __attribute__((packed));
          struct bar {
            char z;
            struct foo f;
          };
-Wpacked-bitfield-compat
The 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 series of GCC ignore the packed attribute on bit-fields of type char. This has been fixed in GCC 4.4 but the change can lead to differences in the structure layout. GCC informs you when the offset of such a field has changed in GCC 4.4. For example there is no longer a 4-bit padding between field a and b in this structure:

          struct foo
          {
            char a:4;
            char b:8;
          } __attribute__ ((packed));

This warning is enabled by default. Use -Wno-packed-bitfield-compat to disable this warning.

-Wpadded
Warn if padding is included in a structure, either to align an element of the structure or to align the whole structure. Sometimes when this happens it is possible to rearrange the fields of the structure to reduce the padding and so make the structure smaller.
-Wredundant-decls
Warn if anything is declared more than once in the same scope, even in cases where multiple declaration is valid and changes nothing.
-Wnested-externs (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an extern declaration is encountered within a function.
-Wno-inherited-variadic-ctor
Suppress warnings about use of C++11 inheriting constructors when the base class inherited from has a C variadic constructor; the warning is on by default because the ellipsis is not inherited.
-Winline
Warn if a function that is declared as inline cannot be inlined. Even with this option, the compiler does not warn about failures to inline functions declared in system headers.The compiler uses a variety of heuristics to determine whether or not to inline a function. For example, the compiler takes into account the size of the function being inlined and the amount of inlining that has already been done in the current function. Therefore, seemingly insignificant changes in the source program can cause the warnings produced by -Winlineto appear or disappear.

-Wno-invalid-offsetof (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Suppress warnings from applying the offsetof macro to a non-POD type. According to the 2014 ISO C++ standard, applying offsetof to a non-standard-layout type is undefined. In existing C++ implementations, however, offsetof typically gives meaningful results. This flag is for users who are aware that they are writing nonportable code and who have deliberately chosen to ignore the warning about it.The restrictions on offsetof may be relaxed in a future version of the C++ standard.

-Wno-int-to-pointer-cast
Suppress warnings from casts to pointer type of an integer of a different size. In C++, casting to a pointer type of smaller size is an error. Wint-to-pointer-cast is enabled by default.
-Wno-pointer-to-int-cast (C and Objective-C only)
Suppress warnings from casts from a pointer to an integer type of a different size.
-Winvalid-pch
Warn if a precompiled header (see Precompiled Headers) is found in the search path but can’t be used.
-Wlong-long
Warn if long long type is used. This is enabled by either -Wpedantic or -Wtraditional in ISO C90 and C++98 modes. To inhibit the warning messages, use -Wno-long-long.
-Wvariadic-macros
Warn if variadic macros are used in ISO C90 mode, or if the GNU alternate syntax is used in ISO C99 mode. This is enabled by either -Wpedantic or -Wtraditional. To inhibit the warning messages, use -Wno-variadic-macros.
-Wvarargs
Warn upon questionable usage of the macros used to handle variable arguments like va_start. This is default. To inhibit the warning messages, use -Wno-varargs.
-Wvector-operation-performance
Warn if vector operation is not implemented via SIMD capabilities of the architecture. Mainly useful for the performance tuning. Vector operation can be implemented piecewise, which means that the scalar operation is performed on every vector element; in parallel, which means that the vector operation is implemented using scalars of wider type, which normally is more performance efficient; and as a single scalar, which means that vector fits into a scalar type.
-Wno-virtual-move-assign
Suppress warnings about inheriting from a virtual base with a non-trivial C++11 move assignment operator. This is dangerous because if the virtual base is reachable along more than one path, it is moved multiple times, which can mean both objects end up in the moved-from state. If the move assignment operator is written to avoid moving from a moved-from object, this warning can be disabled.
-Wvla
Warn if variable length array is used in the code. -Wno-vla prevents the -Wpedantic warning of the variable length array.
-Wvolatile-register-var
Warn if a register variable is declared volatile. The volatile modifier does not inhibit all optimizations that may eliminate reads and/or writes to register variables. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wdisabled-optimization
Warn if a requested optimization pass is disabled. This warning does not generally indicate that there is anything wrong with your code; it merely indicates that GCC’s optimizers are unable to handle the code effectively. Often, the problem is that your code is too big or too complex; GCC refuses to optimize programs when the optimization itself is likely to take inordinate amounts of time.
-Wpointer-sign (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for pointer argument passing or assignment with different signedness. This option is only supported for C and Objective-C. It is implied by -Wall and by -Wpedantic, which can be disabled with -Wno-pointer-sign.
-Wstack-protector
This option is only active when -fstack-protector is active. It warns about functions that are not protected against stack smashing.
-Woverlength-strings
Warn about string constants that are longer than the “minimum maximum” length specified in the C standard. Modern compilers generally allow string constants that are much longer than the standard’s minimum limit, but very portable programs should avoid using longer strings.The limit applies after string constant concatenation, and does not count the trailing NUL. In C90, the limit was 509 characters; in C99, it was raised to 4095. C++98 does not specify a normative minimum maximum, so we do not diagnose overlength strings in C++.

This option is implied by -Wpedantic, and can be disabled with -Wno-overlength-strings.

-Wunsuffixed-float-constants (C and Objective-C only)
Issue a warning for any floating constant that does not have a suffix. When used together with -Wsystem-headers it warns about such constants in system header files. This can be useful when preparing code to use with the FLOAT_CONST_DECIMAL64 pragma from the decimal floating-point extension to C99.
-Wno-designated-init (C and Objective-C only)
Suppress warnings when a positional initializer is used to initialize a structure that has been marked with the designated_init attribute.

iDev: Guidelines for installing custom enterprise apps on iOS

Guidelines for installing custom enterprise apps on iOS

Follow these security guidelines to install custom apps created for your organization.

Organizations can use the Apple Developer Enterprise Program to create proprietary enterprise apps for iOS devices and to distribute them to employees for internal use. Before one of these apps can be opened, it must be trusted.
Trust is established automatically if the app is installed by Mobile Device Management (MDM). If you install an app manually you must also manually establish trust as described below.

Apple recommends using an (MDM) solution to distribute the apps because it is secure and requires no user interaction. Users can also install these custom apps from a secure website operated by their organization. If you’re not installing an app from your organization, the best way to protect your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch is to download and install apps only from the Apple App Store.

Manually Installing and Trusting an Enterprise App

iphone6-ios9-enterprise-untrusted_enterprise_app.png
When you first open an enterprise app you’ve manually installed, you see a notification that the developer of the app isn’t trusted on your device. You can dismiss this message but you can’t open the app.

After dismissing this message you can establish trust for this app developer. Tap Settings > General > Profiles or Profiles & Device Management. You then see a a profile for the developer under the “Enterprise App” heading.

iphone6-ios9-enterprise-settings-general-profiles_device_management.png

Tap the profile to establish trust for this developer.

iphone6-ios9-enterprise-profile_settings-trust_app.png

You’re then prompted to confirm your choice. Once you trust this profile, you can manually install other apps from the same developer and open them immediately. This developer remains trusted until you use the Delete App button to remove all apps from the developer.

iphone6-ios9-enterprise-profile_settings-verify_app.png

An Internet connection is required to verify the app developer’s certificate when establishing trust. If you’re behind a firewall, make sure it’s configured to allow connections to https://ppq.apple.com. If you aren’t connected to the Internet when you trust an app, the device displays “Not Verified” instead. In order to use the app, you need to connect to the Internet, and tap the Verify App button.

Original Source: https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT204460

The 18 Most Important Features in iOS 8

At WWDC, developers rule. Apple may have previewed iOS 8 and OS X Yosemite to the entire world at its opening keynote, but developers are the only ones who get to check out the beta version of the software until an open beta program kicks off this summer.

This year’s conference has had its share of surprises, and it’s little wonder devs are salivating: Apple is allowing more flexibility about what developers can grow within its walled garden. For the first time, third-party onscreen keyboards will be welcomed in iOS 8, widgets are coming to the notification center, and media apps will have greater access to the device’s camera. Apple even debuted its own programming language, Swift, which got some of the loudest cheers during Monday’s keynote.

That’s all well and good, but what about the rest of us?

What’s in iOS 8 that will change the mobile life of your everyday iPhone user?

What’s in iOS 8 that will change the mobile life of your everyday iPhone user? Quite a bit, as it turns out. Here are the most important changes coming in iOS 8, based on whatApple revealed at WWDC and reports about the beta software:

 

1. Battery usage indicator

It’s probably the most common complaint about the iPhone: The battery drains too damn fast. This is, of course, dependent on exactly what you do with it, but how do users know whether to prioritize dimming the screen, quitting a particular app or turning off Background App Refresh?

In iOS 8, they’ll finally get some guidance. The iPhone’s settings will offer a way to checkexactly which apps and functions are draining your battery. With that guidance, users will be able to selectively change their settings or uninstall the right apps to maximize their battery.

Developers will certainly find the feature useful as well, as it should help make their apps more efficient. In short, this could be the most welcome new feature in iOS 8.

2. New keyboard(s)

iOS 8 keyboard

There’s nothing more fundamental to the iPhone than its onscreen keyboard — and in iOS 8, it gets an upgrade via predictive typing, which suggests several options for the next word as you type. This is a feature that’s been on Android for a while, although Apple says its implementation is superior — since it learns what you’re likely to say to different friends and colleagues.

At the same time, Apple is letting developers offer their own keyboards. You may have tried Swype for Android, for example, which uses an algorithm that lets you swipe around a keyboard rather than tap; the company has already said it will make its keyboard available for iOS.

3. Continuity

Continuity

IMAGE: APPLE

Apple took the idea of collaboration through the cloud to a new level with a new feature called Handoff, part of its “Continuity” concept. If you have an iPhone and a Mac, you’ll be able to start a task on one device (say, composing an email) and finish on the other. Since the devices are aware of each other, all you have to do is click one button, and it works on iPad, too.

Continuity also has a couple of bonuses: First, AirDrop will work between Macs and iOS devices. Second, using your iPhone as a personal hotspot has never been easier. There’s no configuration needed — the iPhone will just know when your Mac needs the connection.

4. New camera features

The camera is probably every smartphone’s No. 1 app. Apple likes to keep its interface relatively simple, but in iOS 8, users will get a couple of more options: a three-second timerand time-lapse capture for video — sort of the opposite of the slow-motion mode introduced in iOS 7. The camera also gets focus and exposure controls.

5. iCloud Photo Library

iCloud Photo Library

iCloud currently stores the last 1,000 photos from your iOS devices for free. With iOS 8, users will be able to upgrade to iCloud Photo Library, which will instantly upload all iPhone/iPad photos and videos to iCloud. Users only get 5GB for free, though — storage costs $0.99 a month for 20GB, with tiers all the way up to 1TB. (The Google+ app on iOS, by the way, will back up all your photos up to Google’s 15 GB limit, for free).

6. Family Sharing

Family Sharing

IMAGE: MASHABLE, LANCE ULANOFF

With iOS 8, Apple is taking the first step toward merging Apple IDs (a long-requested feature) by introducing Family Sharing, which lets different Apple users share all content they’ve downloaded from iTunes. Up to six people can be designated family members, and it provides a great solution to the problem of kids downloading paid apps on their parents’ credit cards: With Family Sharing, the parent gets notified, and then can grant or deny the purchase.

7. Interactive Notifications

Interactive Notifications

IMAGE: MASHABLE, LANCE ULANOFF

Just need to reply to a message with a single word? Why do you have to launch Messages for that? In iOS 8, you won’t have to — just pull down on the banner that appears and you can type your reply — then get right back to playing Candy Crush.

Notifications on the lock screen are interactive, too. Swiping an alert to the left will reveal Reply/Dismiss buttons, letting you do things faster without unlocking your phone. And if you’re concerned about security implications, you can disable this feature.

8. Messages upgrade

iOS 8 Messages 

In iOS 8, Apple’s built-in messaging app has a lot more to offer. Apple added the ability to send audio and video messages to your friends. With audio, they’re effortless: just open the conversation and raise the phone to your ear to begin recording. Users can also let these kinds of messages self-destruct after a certain amount of time — but that’s just a memory-management feature, and not, as has been claimed, an attempt to move in on Snapchat’s territory. (After all, there’s nothing to prevent the other people in the conversation from saving their versions of the video or audio.)

At the same time, Messages adds a couple of convenient features: You can set Do Not Disturb on specific threads so you’re not constantly getting alerts from big group messages. You can also now share your location with contacts you’re conversing with, as in the Find My Friends app, viewable through a new “Details” button on threads.

9. Widgets

iOS 8 widgets

IMAGE: MASHABLE, LANCE ULANOFF

Here’s another upgrade that Android has had a lock on for years: widgets, made possible byiOS 8’s “extensibility,” which allows apps to share data and functions with other apps.

Don’t get too excited — widgets will reside in the notification center, not the home screen. But their arrival on iOS is a big upgrade, and if Android is any indication, you can expect the floodgates to open for these small, “glanceable” mini-apps when iOS 8 launches in the fall.

10. Lock screen app suggestions

In iOS 8, users will notice a new icon on the iPhone lock screen that looks like the App Store. Swipe up and you’ll see app suggestions based on your location. For example, if you’re across the street from Starbucks, you might see the Starbucks app.

The feature could be a new path to app discoverability (which can be a problem for apps not in the Top 100), but we’ll wait to see how this plays out between Apple, vendors and developers.

11. TouchID for apps

TouchID

IMAGE: MASHABLE, LANCE ULANOFF

Apple took fingerprint reading mainstream with the TouchID sensor in the iPhone 5S. In iOS 8, it’s going to open up that level of convenience to developers, who can let a user unlock any password stored in their keychain by placing their finger on the reader. That could potentially be even more convenient than Lastpass app logins on Android.

12. iCloud Drive

iCloud Drive 

If you’ve ever tried to save, say, a PDF from an email on your iPhone, you may have been frustrated by the lack of a native file system for iOS. Soon iCloud Drive will address that problem, while at the same time offering a cloud-storage service similar to Dropbox, Box or Google Drive. It’s compatible with Windows, too — but not Android.

13. Health

Health

IMAGE: APPLE

The new Health app is straightforward: It provides a central place for all the health and fitness information you’re storing on the iPhone. Many apps, such as Nike+ and Fitbit, do this individually, but now those apps will be able to integrate into one app — presuming developers take advantage of Apple’s HealthKit platform.

Apple is also partnering with healthcare providers to help bring the iPhone health data to the doctors and care specialists who can really do something with it. Health could have a profound effect on preventative medicine, if both developers and care centers support it.

14. New Siri features

Siri

IMAGE: MASHABLE, LANCE ULANOFF

Be careful what you say — Siri is always listening in iOS 8. Even if the iPhone is in a dormant state, you can just say “Hey Siri” to wake up the phone and ask something. The phone has to be plugged into power for this to work, indicating Apple probably sees it as a hands-free solution for the car.

Siri can also identify songs with built-in Shazam integration. So instead of launching an app, all you’ll need to do is hold down your iPhone’s home button to find out what music is playing. Think of all the time you’ll save at the bar.

15. Contacts on apps screen

iOS 8 Contacts

IMAGE: MASHABLE, CHRISTINA WARREN

Apple realized it wasn’t making use of all the space on the apps screen that appears when you double-click the home button. Right above the apps running, you’ll see a strip of the most recent contacts along the top. It’s another welcome convenience.

16. More Spotlight results

iOS 8 Spotlight results

IMAGE: MASHABLE, CHRISTINA WARREN

Searching on the iPhone in iOS 8 now brings up Wikipedia, App Store and iTunes results for anything you’re searching for.

17. Full-featured Safari

Safari got a huge upgrade in iOS 7, and although the upgrades in iOS 8 are more incremental (and already exist in other browsers), they’re welcome. There’s more flexibility in Private browsing, letting you keep regular and private tabs separate. DuckDuckGo — the privacy-preserving alternative to Google — is supported as a search engine, and users will be able to easily request the desktop version of any site.

18. The Weather Channel

In iOS 7, Apple’s weather app got its info from Yahoo. Starting in iOS 8, that data comes from the Weather Channel.

Have something to add to this story? Share it in the comments.

Source : Press HERE

Thanks 🙂

Solution’s Point

iDev: Copy a plist file to documents folder

Hi Friends,

Here a code snapshot for your help on Copy a plist file to Documents Folder

BOOL isSuccess;
NSError *error;
NSFileManager *fileManager = [NSFileManager defaultManager];
NSArray *paths = NSSearchPathForDirectoriesInDomains(NSDocumentDirectory, NSUserDomainMask, YES);
NSString *documentsDirectory = [paths objectAtIndex:0];
NSString *filePath = [documentsDirectory stringByAppendingPathComponent:@"idevCopyData.plist"];
isSuccess = [fileManager fileExistsAtPath:filePath];
if (isSuccess) return;
NSString *path = [[[NSBundle mainBundle] resourcePath] stringByAppendingFormat:@"idevCopyData.plist"];
isSuccess = [fileManager copyItemAtPath:path toPath:filePath error:&error];
if (!isSuccess) {
NSAssert1(0, @"Failed to copy Plist. Error %@", [error localizedDescription]);
}

 

Reference : Here

Thanks 🙂

 

iDev: Change iOS project “My Mac 64-bit” to “iOS Device”

Hi Friends,

XCode iOS project only shows “My Mac 64-bit”!!!

The Simulator and Device options to Build/Run your have have disappeared.
This happened to  me after I changed the project name once or changed by another person.

solution #1:

  1. – Close Xcode.
  2. – Locate your Project folder.
  3. – Right-click on the AppName.xcodeproj file and click show package contents.
  4. – Now delete everything inside the xcuserdata folder.

If this does not work trying this:

  1. – open Xcode (obviously)
  2. – clicked on Manage Schemes and then Autocreate Schemes Now.
  3. – Then select the new scheme in Xcode.

Now you should get back all device/simulator options.

Thanks 🙂

Keep Coding 🙂

iDev: Objective-C Associated Objects

Objective-C Associated Objects

Add properties to objects in categories.

As a developer, I love coming across new methods or techniques that help make better, more readable code. Recently I was trying to find a better way of passing information from a method that creates a UIAlertView to the UIAlertView’s delegate method alertView:didDismissWithButtonIndex:. There is no userInfo dictionary for an alert view, and Apple specifically says not to subclass UIAlertView. What I’ve done in the past is create a property or class instance variable to temporarily hold the object I want to pass around. I don’t like this technique, it feels sloppy, but it gets the job done. Now behold the power of Objective-C Associated Objects.

Associated Objects

Associated objects have been around since iOS 3.1 and are a part of the Objective-C runtime. They allow you to associate objects at runtime. Basically, you can attach any object to any other object without subclassing. To begin using associated objects, all you need to do is import <objc/runtime.h> in the class where you want to use them. The relevant methods are the following:

void objc_setAssociatedObject(id object, void *key, id value, objc_AssociationPolicy policy)
id objc_getAssociatedObject(id object, void *key)
void objc_removeAssociatedObjects(id object)

object is the source object for the association, or in other words, it is the object that will point to the other object.
*key is the the key for the association, this can be any void pointer, anything that has a constant memory address is all you want.
value is the object you want to store or associate with the source object.
policy is a constant defining the type of reference, similar to the types you use when declaring properties. The possible values are:

enum {
   OBJC_ASSOCIATION_ASSIGN = 0,
   OBJC_ASSOCIATION_RETAIN_NONATOMIC = 1,
   OBJC_ASSOCIATION_COPY_NONATOMIC = 3,
   OBJC_ASSOCIATION_RETAIN = 01401,
   OBJC_ASSOCIATION_COPY = 01403
};

 

Typically we don’t want to use objc_removeAssociatedObjects, but would rather use setAssociatedObject with a nil value to remove an association. According to Apple,
The main purpose of this function is to make it easy to return an object to a “pristine state”. You should not use this function for general removal of associations from objects, since it also removes associations that other clients may have added to the object. Typically you should use objc_setAssociatedObject with a nil value to clear an association.

In many cases you probably won’t have to worry about removing an association because when the source object is destroyed it will destroy the reference to the associated object.

Sample Use Case

In my case, I want to associate an NSIndexPath to a UIAlertView. Let me explain my use case a little further, you have probably come across a similar problem. I have a table view where I show a confirmation alert when the user tries to delete a row. Usually I wouldn’t put a confirmation on a delete, but sometimes it has serious implications (maybe you’re deleting a folder holding 100 records of something and deleting the folder deletes all those precious records).

The alert is created and displayed in the UITableViewDataSource method tableView:commitEditingStyle:forRowAtIndexPath:. At this point you have the indexPath you want to delete. Once you call -show on the alert, your class starts waiting for the UIAlertViewDelegate callback methodalertView:didDismissWithButtonIndex:. Once the user confirms, it enters the delegate method and you no longer know which indexPath you should delete.

Now I’m going to detail a number of solutions to this problem, each better than the last. I’m only going to show the relevant code though instead of the entire class because I’m using a very simple example. I just slightly modified the code that is generated for you when you create a new project with the master-detail template (without core data).

Original Solution

The original solution was to have a class level instance variable that holds the index path we want to delete. We would set the index path to delete in our commitEditingStyle method, and then retrieve it in alertView:didDismissWithButtonIndex.

 

@interface MasterViewController () <UIAlertViewDelegate> {
    NSMutableArray *_objects;
    NSIndexPath *_indexPathToDelete;
}

...

- (void)tableView:(UITableView *)tableView commitEditingStyle:
(UITableViewCellEditingStyle)editingStyle 
forRowAtIndexPath:(NSIndexPath *)indexPath
{
    if (editingStyle == UITableViewCellEditingStyleDelete) {
    	NSString *deleteMessage = @"Are you sure you want to delete this super important thing?";
        UIAlertView *deleteConfirmation = [[UIAlertView alloc] initWithTitle:@"Delete Row"
                                                                     message:deleteMessage
                                                                    delegate:self
                                                           cancelButtonTitle:@"Cancel"
                                                           otherButtonTitles:@"Confirm", nil];
        _indexPathToDelete = indexPath;
        [deleteConfirmation show];
    }
}

...

- (void)alertView:(UIAlertView *)alertView didDismissWithButtonIndex:(NSInteger)buttonIndex
{
    if (buttonIndex == 1) {
        [_objects removeObjectAtIndex:_indexPathToDelete.row];
        [_tableView deleteRowsAtIndexPaths:@[_indexPathToDelete] withRowAnimation:UITableViewRowAnimationFade];
    }
}

 

This solution works, but why would we want to use this instance variable that is visible to the entire class? Only two methods have interest in this index path, and what if some other method messes with indexPathToDelete and we get some unexpected behavior. It would be better if we could confine this object to only the methods that care about it.

Acceptable Solution

Using the objective-c runtime methods we can associate the index path to the alert view. We will set the association in commitEditingStyle, and retrieve the index path in didDismissWithButtonIndex:.

 

#import <objc/runtime.h>

static char deleteKey;

@interface MasterViewController () <UIAlertViewDelegate> {
    NSMutableArray *_objects;
}

...

- (void)tableView:(UITableView *)tableView 
commitEditingStyle:(UITableViewCellEditingStyle)editingStyle 
forRowAtIndexPath:(NSIndexPath *)indexPath
{
    if (editingStyle == UITableViewCellEditingStyleDelete) {
        NSString *deleteMessage = @"Are you sure you want to delete this super important thing?";
        UIAlertView *deleteConfirmation = [[UIAlertView alloc] initWithTitle:@"Delete Row"
                                                                     message:deleteMessage
                                                                    delegate:self
                                                           cancelButtonTitle:@"Cancel"
                                                           otherButtonTitles:@"Confirm", nil];
        objc_setAssociatedObject(deleteConfirmation, &deleteKey, indexPath, OBJC_ASSOCIATION_RETAIN);
        [deleteConfirmation show];
    }
}

...

- (void)alertView:(UIAlertView *)alertView 
didDismissWithButtonIndex:(NSInteger)buttonIndex
{
    if (buttonIndex == 1) {
        NSIndexPath *deletePath = objc_getAssociatedObject(alertView, &deleteKey);
        [_objects removeObjectAtIndex:deletePath.row];
        [_tableView deleteRowsAtIndexPaths:@[deletePath] 
                               withRowAnimation:UITableViewRowAnimationFade];
    }
}

 

As you can see, we no longer need the instance variable, but we use a new static char variable as the association key. The alert view holds a strong reference to the index path, so it persists from one method to the next as long as the alert view is still in memory. When the alert view is destroyed it will also destroy the index path associated with it. This makes the code clearer and confined to just the methods it is used in instead of having an instance variable that is available to the whole class. We can make this code even better though.

Better Solution

Associated Objects Category

You can create a category on NSObject that simplifies the objective-c runtime calls into a nice API you can use in your normal classes. You could expand on this, but a basic category would be as follows:

NSObject+AssociatedObjects.h

@interface NSObject (AssociatedObjects)
- (void)associateValue:(id)value withKey:(void *)key;
- (id)associatedValueForKey:(void *)key;
@end

 

NSObject+AssociatedObjects.m

#import "NSObject+AssociatedObjects.h"
#import <objc/runtime.h>

@implementation NSObject (AssociatedObjects)

- (void)associateValue:(id)value withKey:(void *)key
{
    objc_setAssociatedObject(self, key, value, OBJC_ASSOCIATION_RETAIN);
}

- (id)associatedValueForKey:(void *)key
{
    return objc_getAssociatedObject(self, key);
}

@end

 

Your view controller would then look like this…

 

#import "NSObject+AssociatedObjects.h"
static char deleteKey;

@interface MasterViewController () <UIAlertViewDelegate> {
    NSMutableArray *_objects;
}

...

- (void)tableView:(UITableView *)tableView 
commitEditingStyle:(UITableViewCellEditingStyle)editingStyle 
forRowAtIndexPath:(NSIndexPath *)indexPath
{
    if (editingStyle == UITableViewCellEditingStyleDelete) {
        NSString *deleteMessage = @"Are you sure you want to delete this super important thing?";
        UIAlertView *deleteConfirmation = [[UIAlertView alloc] initWithTitle:@"Delete Row"
                                                                     message:deleteMessage
                                                                    delegate:self
                                                           cancelButtonTitle:@"Cancel"
                                                           otherButtonTitles:@"Confirm", nil];
        [deleteConfirmation associateValue:indexPath withKey:&deleteKey];
        [deleteConfirmation show];
    }
}

...

- (void)alertView:(UIAlertView *)alertView 
didDismissWithButtonIndex:(NSInteger)buttonIndex
{
    if (buttonIndex == 1) {
        NSIndexPath *deletePath = [alertView associatedValueForKey:&deleteKey];
        [_objects removeObjectAtIndex:deletePath.row];
        [_tableView deleteRowsAtIndexPaths:@[deletePath] 
                    withRowAnimation:UITableViewRowAnimationFade];
    }
}

 

I like this a little better because it abstracts out the runtime methods and gives you a nice interface you can use on any object. This accomplishes the same thing, but to me it is much more readable and feels better.

Awesome Solution

According to Apple docs:
The UIAlertView class is intended to be used as-is and does not support subclassing. The view hierarchy for this class is private and must not be modified.

Also according to Apple docs:
Categories can be used to declare either instance methods or class methods but are not usually suitable for declaring additional properties. It’s valid syntax to include a property declaration in a category interface, but it’s not possible to declare an additional instance variable in a category. This means the compiler won’t synthesize any instance variable, nor will it synthesize any property accessor methods. You can write your own accessor methods in the category implementation, but you won’t be able to keep track of a value for that property unless it’s already stored by the original class.

The only way to add a traditional property-backed by a new instance variable-to an existing class is to use a class extension, as described in ‘Class Extensions Extend the Internal Implementation.'”

With our newfound power, we will add a new property to UIAlertView without subclassing it. As you see in the documentation, it is perfectly valid to declare a property in the category interface, you just can’t create a new instance variable. We don’t need a new instance variable, we will just override the getter and setter of our property to store and retrieve the property by associating it to the alert view.

Let’s create a category on UIAlertView called DeleteConfirmation.

In UIAlertView+DeleteConfirmation.h

@interface UIAlertView (DeleteConfirmation)
@property (nonatomic) NSIndexPath *indexPathToDelete;
@end

 

Now in UIAlertView+DeleteConfirmation.m

#import "UIAlertView+DeleteConfirmation.h"
#import "NSObject+AssociatedObjects.h"

@implementation UIAlertView (DeleteConfirmation)

- (void)setIndexPathToDelete:(NSIndexPath *)indexPathToDelete
{
    [self associateValue:indexPathToDelete withKey:@selector(indexPathToDelete)];
}

- (NSIndexPath *)indexPathToDelete
{
    return [self associatedValueForKey:@selector(indexPathToDelete)];
}

@end

 

Thanks to Erica Sadun, who then credits Gwynne Raskind, for this bad-assery of using the property selector as the association key. According to them, this is valid because Apple’s selector implementation uses a fixed address.

Using the same example, after importing the new category, our view controller code becomes:

 

#import "UIAlertView+DeleteConfirmation.h"

@interface MasterViewController () <UIAlertViewDelegate> {
    NSMutableArray *_objects;
}

...

- (void)tableView:(UITableView *)tableView
 commitEditingStyle:(UITableViewCellEditingStyle)editingStyle 
forRowAtIndexPath:(NSIndexPath *)indexPath
{
    if (editingStyle == UITableViewCellEditingStyleDelete) {
        NSString *deleteMessage = @"Are you sure you want to delete this super important thing?";
        UIAlertView *deleteConfirmation = [[UIAlertView alloc] initWithTitle:@"Delete Row"
                                                                     message:deleteMessage
                                                                    delegate:self
                                                           cancelButtonTitle:@"Cancel"
                                                           otherButtonTitles:@"Confirm", nil];
        deleteConfirmation.indexPathToDelete = indexPath;
        [deleteConfirmation show];
    }
}

...

- (void)alertView:(UIAlertView *)alertView 
didDismissWithButtonIndex:(NSInteger)buttonIndex
{
    if (buttonIndex == 1) {
        NSIndexPath *deletePath = alertView.indexPathToDelete;
        [_objects removeObjectAtIndex:deletePath.row];
        [_tableView deleteRowsAtIndexPaths:@[deletePath] 
                            withRowAnimation:UITableViewRowAnimationFade];
    }
}

 

Beautiful. I love it. The index path to delete looks like any other property you would access.

Conclusion

Ok… maybe this is overkill for the example I gave, but I’m sure you will find other uses for it now that you know about it. It is a great weapon to have at your disposal, and it really helps you write much cleaner, self documenting code.

Source Reference : Press Here

iDev: How to extend existing method in Objective-C

Hi Friends,

Todays you learn a very good technique, I hope:)

With blocks it’s more easy if you need extend your method. But if you will need extend some method of another class, not yours, and you will not be able to get the sources then this solution for you. (And if you will not be able or does not have any reason for creating a subclass)

1. You need create a category of class

2. import runtime in implementation file (.m)

#import <objc/runtime.h>

3. implement your method inside category, for example :

– (void) extend_method {

// your code

//  here will be performed the original method
[self extend_method];

// your code
}

It looks like this method has recursive calls itself, but it’s not true. Look next step

4. add method for replace (you can use +initialize or +load)

+ (void) initialize {
Method original = class_getInstanceMethod(self, @selector(method));
Method replacement = class_getInstanceMethod(self, @selector(extend_method));
method_exchangeImplementations(original, replacement);
}

Done!

Reference : Press Here

Keep Coding 🙂

 

iDev: Secure site trust (Https:) in iOS using NSURLConnection

Secure Coding iPhone and iPad Apps Against MiTM

Many iOS applications use HTTP to connect to server side resources. To protect user-data from being eavesdropped, iOS applications often use SSL to encrypt their HTTP connections.

In this article, I will present sample Objective-C code to illustrate how HTTP(S) connections are established and how to locate insecure code that can leave the iOS application vulnerable to Man in the Middle attacks. I will also discuss how to configure an iOS device to allow for interception of traffic through an HTTP proxy for testing purposes.

A Simple App Using NSURLConnection

The easiest way to initiate HTTP requests in iOS is to utilize the NSURLConnection class. Here is sample code from a very simple application that takes in a URL from an edit-box, makes a GET request, and displays the HTML obtained.

[Please note that the code in this particular example is mostly from Apple’s wonderful tutorial on how to use NSURLConnection]

//This IBAction fires when the user types in a URL and presses GO
– (IBAction) urlBarReturn:(id)sender
{   
    //htmlOutput is the UITextView that displays the HTML
    htmlOutput.text=@””;

    //urlBar is the UITextField that contains the URL to load
    NSURLRequest *theRequest=[NSURLRequest requestWithURL:[NSURL URLWithString:urlBar.text]
                                              cachePolicy:NSURLRequestUseProtocolCachePolicy
                                              timeoutInterval:60.0];
    NSURLConnection *theConnection=[[NSURLConnection alloc] initWithRequest:theRequest delegate:self];

    if(!theConnection)
        htmlOutput.text=@”failed”;   
}

– (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveResponse:(NSURLResponse *)response

{
    //receivedData is of type NSMutableData
    [receivedData setLength:0];

}

– (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveData:(NSData *)data
{
    [receivedData appendData:data];

    NSString *tempString = [[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];

    htmlOutput.text = [NSString stringWithFormat:@”%@%@”,htmlOutput.text,tempString];

    [tempString release];
}

– (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didFailWithError:(NSError *)error
{

    [connection release];

    [receivedData release];

    NSLog(@”Connection failed! Error: %@ %@”,
          [error localizedDescription],
          [[error userInfo] objectForKey:NSURLErrorFailingURLStringErrorKey]);

    htmlOutput.text=[NSString stringWithFormat:@”Connection failed! Error %@ %@”,[error localizedDescription],
                     [[error userInfo] objectForKey:NSURLErrorFailingURLStringErrorKey]];
}

– (void)connectionDidFinishLoading:(NSURLConnection *)connection
{
    NSLog(@”Succeeded! Received %d bytes of data”,[receivedData length]);

    [connection release];

    [receivedData release];

}

The result is a simple iOS application that fetches HTML code from a given URL.

IOS-app-simple-html
Figure: Simple iOS App using NSURLConnection to fetch HTML from a given URL.

In the screen-shot above, notice that the target URL is https. NSURLConnection seamlessly establishes an SSL connection and fetches the data. If you are reviewing source code of an iOS application for your organization to locate security issues, it makes sense to analyze code that uses NSURLConnection. Make sure you understand how the connections are being inititated, how user input is utilized to construct the connection requests, and if SSL is being used or not. While you are at it, you may also want to watch for NSURL* in general to include invocations to objects of type NSHTTPCookie, NSHTTPCookieStorage, NSHTTPURLResponse, NSURLCredential, NSURLDownload, etc.

Man in the Middle 

74.125.224.49 is one of the IP addresses bound to the host name http://www.google.com. If you browse to https://74.125.224.49, your browser should show you a warning due to the fact that the Common Name field in the SSL certificate presented by the server (www.google.com) does not match the host+domain component of the URL.

IOS-safari-warning Figure: Safari on iOS warning the user due to mis-match of the Common Name field in the certificate.

As presented in the screen-shot above, Safari on iOS does the right thing by warning the user in this situation. Common Name mis-matches and certificates that are not signed by a recognized certificate authority can be signs of a Man in the Middle attempt by a malicious party that is on the same network segment as that of the user or within the network route to the destination.

Ios-NSURL-warning Figure: NSURLConnection’s connection:didFailWithError: delegate is invoked to throw a similar warning.

The screenshot above shows what happens if we attempt to browse to https://74.125.224.49 using our sample App discussed ealier: the connection:didFailWithError: delegate is called indicating an error, which in this case warns the user of the risk and terminates.

This is fantastic. Kudos to Apple for thinking through the security implications and presenting a useful warning message to the user (via NSError).

Unfortunately, it is quite common for application developers to over-ride this protection for various reasons: for example, if the test environment does not have a valid certificate and the code makes it to production. The code below is enough to over-ride this protection outright:

 

– (BOOL)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection canAuthenticateAgainstProtectionSpace:(NSURLProtectionSpace *)protectionSpace

{
    return [protectionSpace.authenticationMethod isEqualToString:NSURLAuthenticationMethodServerTrust];
}

– (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveAuthenticationChallenge:(NSURLAuthenticationChallenge *)challenge

{
                [challenge.sender useCredential:[NSURLCredential credentialForTrust:challenge.protectionSpace.serverTrust] forAuthenticationChallenge:challenge];
}

The details on this code is available from this stackoverflow post. There is also a private method for NSURLRequest called setAllowsAnyHTTPSCertificate:forHost: that can be used to over-ride the SSL warnings but Apps that use it are unlikely to get through the App store approval process (Apple prohibits invocations of private API).

If you are responsible for reviewing your organization’s iOS code for security vulnerabilities, I highly recommend you watch for such dangerous design decisions that can put your client’s data and your company’s data at risk.

Intercepting HTTPS traffic using an HTTP Proxy.

As part of performing security testing of applications, it is often useful to intercept HTTP traffic being invoked by the application. Applications that use NSURLConnection‘s implementation as-is will reject your local proxy’s self-signed certificate and terminate the connection. You can get around this easily by implanting the HTTP proxy’s self-signed certificate as a trusted certificate on your iOS device [Note: This is not a loop-hole against the precautions mentioned above: in this case we have access to the physical device and are legitimately implatining the self-signed certificate].

If you are using the Burp Proxy or the Charles Proxy, all you need to do is place the self-signed cert on a HTTP location and browse to it. Instructions for the Burp Proxy are available here, and instructions for Charles Proxy are also available.

Once you have your iOS device or simulator setup using the self-signed certificate of your HTTP proxy, you should be able to intercept HTTPS connections that would otherwise terminate. This is useful for fuzzing, analyzing, and testing iOS applications for security issues.

Source Reference : Click Here..

Thanks 🙂

Keep Coding and innovation new thing in your code … 😉

 

iDev : Essential Tools for iOS Developers

75 Essential Tools for iOS Developers

Source Reference : Here

If you were to go to a master woodworker’s shop, you’d invariably find a plethora of tools that he or she uses to accomplish various tasks.

In software it is the same. You can measure a software developer by how they use their tools. Experienced software developers master their tools. It is important to learn your current tools deeply, and be aware of alternatives to fill in gaps where your current ones fall short.

With that in mind, I present to you a gigantic list of tools. Some of these I use daily, others I see potential in. If you have more tools you’d like to see here, just make sure to add a comment.

I tried to categorize these the best I can. Some of the entries are websites, some are back-end services, but most are apps that you install. Not all of the apps are free, so I’ll make a note with a $ to denote that an app costs money.

And without further ado, we’ll start from the beginning of any project, and that

Inspiration

  • pttrns – A great library of iOS screen designs categories by task. If you want to see how other apps handle activity feeds, for instance, this is a great place to go see a bunch of examples.
  • TappGala – Another great collection of nice app designs. It’s not categorized by task, but is just a list of great apps to get inspiration from.
  • Cocoa Controls – A great list of components (code) that you can use in your iOS apps. Sometimes you’ll find great pieces of code that can save you time, other times you can just learn how other developers accomplish certain features. Subscribe to their weekly newsletter; all signal, little noise.
  • IICNS – A collection of really great icons. Get inspired, but don’t copy.
  • Dribbble – Some of the best digital designers post up their work for all to see. A treasure-trove of designs to look at.
  • Capptivate – a gallery of inspirational designs. Some contain animations. Thanks, @joaopmaia!

Design

  • Mocks ($) – An easy to use tool to create a quick mockup of an iOS app. Comes with a bunch of the default controls you can use to assemble something quickly.
  • Briefs ($) – A really useful app that allows you to create a mockup of an app and stitch them together so you can see the interaction. Deploy to a device so you can see what it feels like in your hand.
  • Acorn ($) – A strong competitor to Photoshop, only way cheaper. I find myself reaching for Photoshop less & less these days. Under active development.
  • Sketch ($) – A vector-based drawing tool that is increasingly useful these days, as screen sizes and pixel densities change. It is often helpful to design once and have the freedom to scale up & down as needed. Also sports a really powerful export system. For some example Sketch projects, check out Sketchmine. See my screencast on Sketch for a live demo.
  • iOS 7 PSD by Teehan+Lax – A super handy resource if you (or your designer) uses Photoshop. An iOS 6 version is also available.
  • Bjango’s Photoshop Actions – A definite time-saver if you use Photoshop to design iOS apps. One click access to resize canvases, scale by 200% (or 50%), set global lighting to 90º, and more. Their blog also has a bunch of useful Photoshop workflow tips.
  • xScope ($) – An indespensible swiss-army knife of tools such as guides, pixel loupes, screen rulers, and more. Want to know what color value that pixel is? Want to see how many pixels between a button and the window for a random Mac app? xScope has you covered. Also check out their companion iPhone app for mirroring designs you’re working on and seeing them in pixel-perfect glory on your iDevice.
  • Glyphish ($) – A fantastic collection of high quality icons for your iOS apps. Apple doesn’t provide a lot of built-in icons, so it’s handy to have a collection of icons covering all kinds of various concepts. I’m still looking for a use for that baby icon though. Glyphish comes in packs, and the latest pack has iOS 7 “thin line” icons which will be very handy when designing an iOS 7 app.
  • Fontastic Icons for iOS – An open source set of classes for utilizing icon fonts, such as Font Awesome in your iOS app. Quickly and easily have an icon in whatever pixel dimensions you require. Since fonts by nature can be scaled up and down with ease, this makes a really nice way to ship & use your icons without having to export multiple versions for the sizes you require.
  • PaintCode ($) – A vector-based drawing tool that exports your artwork as the equivalent Core Graphics source code. Awesome for learning how Core Graphics drawing works, but also incredibly handy if you want your drawing to be dynamic. See my screencast on PaintCode for a live demo.
  • Edge Insets ($) – A simple tool that helps you define your edge insets for repeatable images. Available on the Mac App Store.
  • LiveView – A remote screen viewer for iOS, making it easy to immediately see your designs on a device. Thanks, @_funkyboy!
  • Skala Preview ($) – Another excellent tool for quickly showing your designs off on a real device. The guys at Bjango are awesome and this app is deserving of the price. Thanks, jn40!

Source Control

  • Git – If you’re not using source control stop what you’re doing and rectify that. I use git for everything I do and love it.
  • Kaleidoscope ($) – The best diff/merge tool around. Does 3-way merges and is beautiful to look at. I use it every day.
  • p4merge – A free, ugly alternative to Kaleidoscope. Powerful 3-way merge, but good luck finding the download link. It’s hidden deeper in their site every time I look for it.
  • Git X – A simple, powerful GUI tool for visualizing git timelines and quickly & easily staging commits. I usually live in the Terminal for git usage, but fall back to this app when I need to stage hunks of changes into logical commits. This is a fork of the original (abandoned) GitX, which I found on this list of forks.
  • Source Tree – A free, full-featured Git application. I don’t use this because I favor the command line, but if a GUI tool is your cup-o-tea, check this app out.

Dissecting Apps

  • pngcrush – This little utility can crush & uncrush PNG files, which is handy when you want to view images contained in app bundled distributed in the App Store. Just open iTunes, view the local Apps list, and right click on any icon to Show in Finder. Once there, open up the app and you’ll see a bunch of PNG files, but you can’t view them. Using pngcrush you can extract the full version so it can be opened with Preview.
  • appcrush.rb – This handy little ruby script will automate the above process for all images. Just point it to a .app file on your disk and it will extract all the images to a folder on your desktop. Handy for seeing how apps on your phone accomplish certain designs. Check out my screencast on dissecting apps for a live demo.
  • Charles ($, free limited demo) – I don’t know what’s going on with the ugly UI or icon, but Charles is an essential tool for any developer. Charles acts as a proxy to allow you to inspect your network traffic to & from the iPhone Simulator. You can also inspect traffic from your device by setting your phone’s proxy to your Mac running Charles. With self-signed SSL certificates, request & response breakpoints, and request/response viewers, Charles is really amazingly powerful. A must-have tool. Again, my screencast on dissecting apps covers this well.

Editors

I know what you’re thinking, don’t all iOS developers use Xcode? Well mostly, yes. But with my love/hate relationship with Xcode, I believe there is tremendous value in considering alternatives.

  • AppCode – A full-fledged IDE from Jetbrains (makers of the excellent ReSharper for .NET). Immensely powerful refactorings & features that help you write code faster. Quickly identify dead code, automatically insert #import statements when you use related code, easily extract variables, methods, and classes. My only wish for this app is that it would instead be a plugin to Xcode.
  • Vim – Wait, vim? Really? Yes, there are folks who do all their Objective-C development in vim. I’m not one of these, but I am a fan of vim for Ruby development. As such, I’m a huge fan of…
  • Xvim – An Xcode plug-in that gives you vim keybindings. Works well, ‘nuff said.
  • OMColorSense – Another plugin for Xcode, this one gives you a small display of color when your cursor is on a line looking like: [UIColor redColor]. Clicking on this little color tab opens a color picker that you can change, and any change in color you make is reflected in the code by changing the line to [UIColor colorWithRed:… green:… blue:… alpha:… ]. When someone is watching me write code with this enabled, they invariably ask me, “Whoa! What was that?!”
  • KSImageNamed – Another Xcode plug-in, this one allows you to autocompleted image filenames from your bundle when typing [UIImage imageNamed:…]. Great way to avoid the inevitable typo that causes this method to return nil and you to subsequently waste 10 minutes trying to figure out why your images aren’t displaying.
  • CocoaPods Xcode Plugin – This plug-in adds a menu item for interacting with CocoaPods. Useful if you don’t like dropping to the command line.
  • Alcatraz Package Manager – An awesome meta plug-in that allows you to easily install other Xcode color schemes and plug-ins with a single click.
  • Code Runner ($) – a light-weight code-aware text editor that knows how to compile & run code in most languages. Want to test out a quick snippet of Objective-C code and don’t want to create an entire Xcode project to do it? Code Runner to the rescue.

Documentation

Ahhh, documentation, everyone’s favorite topic. Even still, documentation is really important to have, so pay attention so we can make your life easier.

  • appledoc – Want to automatically generate documentation that look’s like Apple’s? Look no further. Automatically inter-links symbols defined in your project as well as extracting discussion to output using specially formatted code-comments. Generates official docsets and HTML web sites.
  • Dash ($) – A must-have API documentation viewer and code snippet manager. This tool is really handy as it allows you to download & search API docs for all kinds of languages & frameworks with lightning speed. The fastest way to get access to the docs. I integrate Dash with Alfred to make searches even faster.

Dependency Management

Yes, there’s only one tool listed here. I didn’t want to include actual 3rd party libraries, as that would be a different list entirely. When it comes to dependency management, there’s only one game in town:

  • CocoaPods – The essential tool for Objective-C projects. Allows you to quickly & easily integrate 3rd party libraries into your application. It does so by creating a second static library project and automatically links this with your projects. There are thousands of pods available, and it’s easy to add support for libraries that you don’t own (or perhaps are private). I use CocoaPods in every single project I work on.

Diagnostics & Debugging

At some point our app is in the field and we need to understand better what’s going on, maybe to fix bugs or to improve performance.

  • Cocoa Lumberjack – a much more powerful NSLog, Cocoa Lumberjack offers advanced logging behaviors such as logging to rotated files, logging to the network, and filtering based on log level (info, debug, warn, error). Covered by NSScreencast Episode 61
  • DCIntrospect – crazy powerful tool that you’d link inside your app when running in debug and on the simulator. Once you do, you can press the spacebar to get some really helpful view debugging support. See exact dimensions of elements on the screen, print out view hierarchies, even nudge views horizontally or vertically.
  • Pony Debugger – another tool you’d use by embedding a library in your debug builds, Pony Debugger actually utilizes Chrome’s dev tools for seeing network requests coming out of the device, as well as a rudimentary Core Data browser. It’s hard to describe, but check out my screencast on Pony Debugger for more info.
  • Runscope ($) – Runscope is a service running online that can capture requests, log details, and give you valuable data about your API. Simple to set up, as it’s an HTTP pass-through API, all you need to change is your host name.
  • SimPholders – Quick, easy access to your simulator folders. Browse by iOS version, then app name and jump right to the folder in Finder.
  • Spark Inspector ($) – Debug your view hierarchy running on your app in debug mode, in 3D. This app really has to be seen to fully understand the value, but it can really help to understand what views are used to compose your app. Also contains a notification center inspector, so you can easily see what NSNotifications are firing and who is observing them. Another app to look at that is similar is Reveal.

Images

  • ImageAlpha – A Mac app that allows you to convert a 24-bit PNG with transparency to an 8-bit PNG with an alpha channel. Typically 8-bit PNGs don’t have an alpha channel, so if your image can be represented in 8-bits (say, a solid color button) you can save a lot on storage by converting the 24-bit PNG to 8-bit using ImageAlpha.
  • ImageOptim – Another Mac app that compresses PNGs in order to save space. Most PNG files can shave off a few % of the size, and sometimes you’ll shrink the files by 30% or more. Smaller images mean smaller app sizes and less memory used to load them at runtime.
  • Prepo – A little Mac app that can quickly resize artwork in all the various sizes you might need. Just drag a large icon file (say, 1024×1024) onto Prepo and watch it spit out 512×512 iTunesArtwork, 114×114 Icon@2x.png, and all the other sizes & filenames you’d expect.
  • Slender ($) – an awesome app that analyzes your app and finds all sorts of problems, such as missing retina artwork, unused images, image that could benefit from compression and more. Shave kilobytes off of your iPhone app by shedding unused images with Slender.

Core Data

  • Mogenerator – still a super useful tool for generating smart subclasses of your NSManagedObjects in your Core Data model. Some use Xcode for this, and resort to manually subclassing or creating categories in order to add logic to the models. Mogenerator runs as a quick pre-compile script to generate subclasses for you to use. It does this by creating an underscored version (_User) and a regular one for you to modify (User).
  • Base ($) – there will come a time when you need to inspect your actual Core Data sqlite database to see what’s going on. You can use the sqlite3 command line tool, but Base offers a nice looking GUI browser. Just don’t vomit when you see the database schema that Core Data created for you.
  • Core Data Editor ($) – for more advanced data anlysis, exploration, and modification you can use Core Data Editor. This app understands Core Data, so you’re working directly with the entities instead of database rows.

Back-end Services

Ultimately your iOS app will likely want to talk to a server to share data, fetch new content, send push notifications or whatever. While this can be accomplished manually, you might want a more drop-in solution.

  • Helios – Helios is an open-source framework that provides essential backend services for iOS apps, from data synchronization and push notifications to in-app purchases and passbook integration. Built on top of many open source ruby gems, so you can pick & choose and build your own stack if you so desire. Take a look at the Nomad CLI set of handy related tools as well.
  • Windows Azure Mobile Services – you can think of this sort of like a programmable database in the cloud. Create tables, run JavaScript on read, insert, delete to add additional functionality. Really easy support for push notifications as well.
  • Urban Airship – I’ve been using Urban Airship to deliver push notifications for a while now. Really easy to integrate with, and small usage is free.
  • Parse – This is another data-in-the-cloud service, but offers an impressive API and online data browser. We use Parse for a really small app and works well for that.

Analytics

There are other players here, but none that I’ve seen have been compelling enough to switch from flurry. I’m open to hearing suggestions, so let’s hear about ‘em in the comments.

  • Flurry – I’ve used flurry for a long time to provide useful analytics on the usage of my apps. Need to know when to stop supporting iOS 5? Flurry gives you the numbers to have a realistic conversation.

Deployment

  • Deploymate ($) – Need to support iOS 4 still, but you’re compiling with the iOS 6 SDK? Deploymate will warn you when you’re using symbols that don’t exist in your deployment target.
  • Cupertino – Part of the Nomad CLI tools, Cupertino gives you command line access to managing devices & profiles in the Apple Provisioning Portal. For example, just type ios devices:list to see the current list of devices in your account. Useful for automating lots of processes.
  • Hockey App ($) – A great service for managing the distribution of your ad-hoc builds. Testers can get a link to install new betas over the air. Also provides robust crash reporting so you can easily respond to crashes in your apps.
  • TestFlight – A free service, similar to Hockey App. We’ve used TestFlight with great success for easily distributing apps and collecting feedback from our users. My only wish is that they’d start charging for the service. Also includes analytics and crash reporting, but we don’t use those features.
  • iOS Simulator Cropper – A really easy way to snap images of the simulator, with or without status bar, with or without device chrome, etc. Great for taking App Store or just general marketing screenshots.
  • Status Magic ($) – Take better app store screenshots. Nothing makes your app look less crappy than an App Store screenshot that includes a low battery, or low signal. Status Magic gives you complete customization over what’s present in your status bar, including removing elements, changing the time to “9:41 AM” like Apple tends to do, and more.
  • Crashlytics – Excellent crash reporting for your apps in the field. Automatically uploads dSYMs on release builds so your crashes are automatically symbolicated and organized for you to focus on the most critical ones.

Testing

I don’t think we as a community focus enough on testing. There are great tools available to us, and most are so easy to use we have no real excuse not to write at least some tests for our apps.

  • Kiwi – A great Rspec-style testing framework for iOS. Built on top of SenTestingKit, so you just type ⌘U to run your specs. Also includes a completely robust mocking & stubbing library as well as assertions.
  • Specta – A light-weight BDD framework very similar to Kiwi, but the expectation syntax has one major benefit over Kiwi: everything is implicitly boxed like this: expect(items.count).to.equal(5). There’s no need to wrap 5 in an NSNumber like Kiwi does. Use in conjunction with Expecta for a bunch of useful matchers.

The following are all various ways of performing end-to-end acceptance tests. These tests will actually interact with your interface, touching buttons, scrolling, etc. By nature these will be slower and more brittle, but testing in broad strokes is certainly helpful to see if all of the pieces fit together properly.

Demos / Marketing

  • Reflector ($) – Wirelessly mirror your iOS device on your Mac using Air Play. Great for doing demos of applications on your computer.
  • Placeit – A great collection of high res photos of people using devices, but the screens are templates that you can insert your own screenshots into. Very cool, and great for displaying your app in a nice way on your website.

App Sales Reporting

Of course you want to be able to see how much money you’re making on your app, right? There are a few solutions for this, but here are a couple that work well:

  • App Viz 2 ($) – a really useful Mac app for tracking sales of your apps. You run it locally and it logs in and downloads your sales reports.
  • App Annie – an online sales reporting tool. I’m less comfortable giving my credentials to iTunes to a 3rd party, but it does keep the reports up to date for you so you don’t have to run an app locally. In the comments, Josh Brown suggests creating a different user for analytics in iTunes Connect, which is a really good idea.

Grab Bag

These tools don’t have a defined category above, but deserve a mention nonetheless.

  • Quick Radar – Submitting bug reports to Apple is our only way of making their tools better. If you’re frustrated by the lack of a feature, you should be submitting a bug report. If you come across a bug, you should be submitting a bug report. One has no right to complain if they have not yet filed a radar :). With that in mind, submitting bug reports via bugreporter feels like a trip back to 1995. Quick Radar is an awesome little app that makes submitting bug reports super easy. Sports automatic posting to open radar so others can see it, in addition to tweeting, and posting to App.net. I use this app several times per week.

Thanks 🙂

Keep Reading and Experiment on your code….